The 43-year-old politician and minister since 2006 made the announcement via a statement early on Monday morning.
"I decided long ago that I wouldn't run for the Riksdag in the 2014 election, and have therefore realized that I should give a successor enough time to get into the job in good time for the election," she wrote, according to the TT news agency.
"I'm truly grateful for all the support I've had from so many people during my years as minister. I'm grateful for the trust to be a minister as firstly Lars Leijonborg and then Jan Björklund has shown me."
"I'm especially proud of the establishment reforms, a coherent anti-discrimination legislation, the battle against violence toward women and the fight against honour violence," she said.
Liberal Party leader Jan Björklund regretted the party's loss.
"Nyamko Sabuni has been a fearless politician who has dared to speak her heart, not least in the frequently arising integration questions. She has left a clear impression on integration and equality in Sweden," he said.