According to witnesses, the boy was playing football with a friend his own age when he was attacked by a group of six or seven young men.
The boy’s friend managed to get away away but the 17-year-old was held down before being punched and kicked repeatedly in the head.
Despite being operated on overnight, the boy’s condition is described by doctors as critical and he remains heavily sedated.
By Monday morning police had not yet arrested any suspects and a motive for the attack has not yet been found.
Police said that it was difficult to question witnesses as they had been in a state of shock.
“This was a particularly ruthless assault. We are going to do everything we can to solve this even if it takes some time to find out more,” said a police spokesman in Malmö.
Police do not believe that the attack was connected to other disturbances reported in Rosengård at the weekend.