He will receive six months' severance pay following his departure.
“It's a good resolution for both parties,” said Marie Lindström of Södra Älvsborg's human resources department to the Borås Tidning newspaper.
The resignation follows the man's earlier departure from a half-time position at Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm.
The academic was convicted last year for having placed his hand inside the panties of a teenage girl he met on a bus.
According to the girl, the professor pressed against her while reciting his sexual fantasies, Borås Tidning reported.
He had been on a paid leave of absence from both jobs since being convicted.