Steen, who is the wife of former Prime Minister Göran Persson, turns 60 next year and has decided to go into retirement.
In a statement released on Thursday, Steen said she had “had the privilege of being head of Systembolaget for ten fantastic years”.
Under her tenure, Steen said the company had improved both in terms of social responsibility and customer service.
Anitra Steen took over as head of Systembolaget in September 1999.
The board of the company said it would now begin its search for Steen’s successor.