Karlsson, ranked 14th in the world and last year’s winner of the European Order of Merit, tied for fourth place in the 2008 US Open at Torrey Pines.
Karlsson also tied for eighth at the Masters and shared seventh at the British Open last year.
Prior to last year, Karlsson had made the cut just once in four US Open appearances, in 2002. That was at Bethpage, where this year’s US Open begins on Thursday.
Karlsson will be replaced in the field by first alternate Andrew Svoboda.