Nobel Prize for medicine split three ways

The 2009 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to three American researchers.

Nobel Prize for medicine split three ways
Jack Szostak, Elizabeth H. Blackburn, and Carol Greider

The three winners, Carol Greider, Jack Szostak, and Elizabeth Blackburn, were awarded the prize “for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase”.

“I’m extremely wound up. I’m quite nervous and shaking inside, but I feel a great honour – you never expect to have a conversation like this,” Greider told the TT news agency be telephone about an hour after the Nobel Committee’s announcement.

Greider, who teaches at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore and whose name had been mentioned as a possible winner in the run-up to the announcement, added it had been suggested to her that she could receive a call from the Swedish capital early Monday.

She was preparing her children’s breakfast when Swedish radio called to interview her.

“I was awake, I wake up early anyway, I was doing the laundry when the phone call came” she told Sveriges Radio.

Groundbreaking research by Greider, Szostak, and Blackburn helped solve one of biology’s greatest mysteries: how chromosomes, which contain hereditary material, can be copied during cell division and how they are protected from being broken down.

They showed that the explanation for the key molecular switch in cellular ageing lies in the ends of chromosomes, telomeres, and in an enzyme, telomerase, which creates them.

Back in the 1980s, Blackburn and Szostak discovered that a unique DNA sequence in the telomeres protects the chromosomes from degradation.

Meanwhile, Greider and Blackburn identified telomerase, the enzyme that makes telomere DNA.

Together the discoveries help explain how the ends of the chromosomes are protected by the telomeres and that they are built by telomerase.

The research has significance for developing new therapies to treat cancer and hereditary diseases.

“We’d been hunting for this enzyme and when the first clear signs of it appeared … I thought ‘this is very interesting, this is a very important result,’ and you don’t often feel that about a result,” Blackburn said.

Szostak was overjoyed when speaking to SR from his home in Boston.

He explained that the Nobel committee’s call had woken him up, even though he had considered the “not very likely” possibility an early morning call could come from Sweden.

“I said (to my wife) it’ll probably come at around 5:30 am, but it came much earlier so I was still sound asleep,” he said, a chuckle in his voice.

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US duo win Nobel for work on how heat and touch spark signals to the brain

US scientists David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian on Monday won the Nobel Medicine Prize for discoveries on receptors for temperature and touch.

US duo win Nobel for work on how heat and touch spark signals to the brain
Thomas Perlmann (right), the Secretary of the Nobel Committee, stands next to a screen showing David Julius (L) and Ardem Patapoutian, winners of the 2021 Nobel Prize for Medicine. Photo: Jonathan Nackstrand/AFP

“The groundbreaking discoveries… by this year’s Nobel Prize laureates have allowed us to understand how heat, cold and mechanical force can initiate the nerve impulses that allow us to perceive and adapt to the world,” the Nobel jury said.

The pair’s research is being used to develop treatments for a wide range of diseases and conditions, including chronic pain. Julius, who in 2019 won the $3-million Breakthrough Prize in life sciences, said he was stunned to receive the call from the Nobel committee early Monday.

“One never really expects that to happen …I thought it was a prank,” he told Swedish Radio.

The Nobel Foundation meanwhile posted a picture of Patapoutian next to his son Luca after hearing the happy news.

Our ability to sense heat, cold and touch is essential for survival, the Nobel Committee explained, and underpins our interaction with the world around us.

“In our daily lives we take these sensations for granted, but how are nerve impulses initiated so that temperature and pressure can be perceived? This question has been solved by this year’s Nobel Prize laureates.”

Prior to their discoveries, “our understanding of how the nervous system senses and interprets our environment still contained a fundamental unsolved question: how are temperature and mechanical stimuli converted into electrical impulses in the nervous system.”

Grocery store research

Julius, 65, was recognised for his research using capsaicin — a compound from chili peppers that induces a burning sensation — to identify which nerve sensors in the skin respond to heat.

He told Scientific American in 2019 that he got the idea to study chili peppers after a visit to the grocery store.  “I was looking at these shelves and shelves of basically chili peppers and extracts (hot sauce) and thinking, ‘This is such an important and such a fun problem to look at. I’ve really got to get serious about this’,” he said.

Patapoutian’s pioneering discovery was identifying the class of nerve sensors that respond to touch.

Julius, a professor at the University of California in San Francisco and the 12-year-younger Patapoutian, a professor at Scripps Research in California, will share the Nobel Prize cheque for 10 million Swedish kronor ($1.1 million, one million euros).

The pair were not among the frontrunners mentioned in the speculation ahead of the announcement.

Pioneers of messenger RNA (mRNA) technology, which paved the way for mRNA Covid vaccines, and immune system researchers had been widely tipped as favourites.

While the 2020 award was handed out in the midst of the pandemic, this is the first time the entire selection process has taken place under the shadow of Covid-19.

Last year, the award went to three virologists for the discovery of the Hepatitis C virus.

Media, Belarus opposition for Peace Prize?

The Nobel season continues on Tuesday with the award for physics and Wednesday with chemistry, followed by the much-anticipated prizes for literature on Thursday and peace on Friday before the economics prize winds things up on Monday, October 11.

For the Peace Prize on Friday, media watchdogs such as Reporters Without Borders and the Committee to Protect Journalists have been mentioned as possible winners, as has the Belarusian opposition spearheaded by Svetlana Tikhanovskaya. Also mentioned are climate campaigners such as Sweden’s Greta Thunberg and her Fridays for Future movement.

Meanwhile, for the Literature Prize on Thursday, Stockholm’s literary circles have been buzzing with the names of dozens of usual suspects.

The Swedish Academy has only chosen laureates from Europe and North America since 2012 when China’s Mo Yan won, raising speculation that it could choose to rectify that imbalance this year. A total of 95 of 117 literature laureates have come from Europe and North America.

While the names of the Nobel laureates are kept secret until the last minute, the Nobel Foundation has already announced that the glittering prize ceremony and banquet held in Stockholm in December for the science and literature laureates will not happen this year due to the pandemic.

Like last year, laureates will receive their awards in their home countries. A decision has yet to be made about the lavish Peace Prize ceremony held in Oslo on the same day.