Two Swedes acquitted of plotting terror crimes

Two Swedes of Somali decent have been acquitted of planning terrorist crimes in Somalia by a Swedish court of appeal.

The two men, Mohamoud Jama, 23, and 26-year-old Bille Ilias Mohamed, had been sentenced in December by the Gothenburg district court to four years in prison.

Swedish prosecutors appealed the verdict, only to have the Court of Appeal for Western Sweden release the two men at the conclusion of the trial, pending the announcement of the verdict.

In a unanimous ruling, the appeals court came to the same conclusion as a minority of justices on the district court, namely that the evidence was insufficient to convict the men.

“The appeals court therefore dismisses the case against both people,” the court said in a statement

The court ruled that prosecutors hadn’t been able to back up their claims, which meant that the court never examined the human rights aspects of the case concerning whether or not the al-Shabaab militia was involved in an armed conflict.

The men had been held in remand for several months in a case in which prosecutors relied on evidence gathered from wiretaps carried out by Swedish security service Säpo.

The original lower court decision had said the two Swedish citizens “had taken it upon themselves, and decided with the Somali Islamist al-Shabaab militia to commit terrorist crimes in the form of suicide attacks.”

It said both men were members and sympathisers of the al-Shabaab movement, which has declared allegiance to Osama bin Laden’s al-Qaeda network and controls most of southern and central Somalia.

Both men denied the charges against them, but one of them has admitted that he spent time in an al-Shabaab training camp.

The appeals court however said the evidence presented by prosecutor Agnetha Hilding Qvarnström was not enough to convict the two.

Tapped phone conversations showed that both Jama and Mohamed “have strong sympathies for the terrorist organization al-Shabaab and the organization’s methods and that they … went to Somalia with the intention to physically join al-Shabaab.”

It was shown that “they were in fact in contact with al-Shabaab and … expressed that they were not opposed to or even wanted to die as martyrs,” the appeal court said in its ruling.

However, it pointed out, “it is not punishable … to have sympathies with terrorist organizations or even to join an organization, if joining does not automatically entail a commitment to commit a (terrorist) crime.

“It is also not punishable to have decided to commit a terrorist crime as long as the personal conviction does not lead to a decision made with another person,” the court said.

It could not be ruled out that the two men aimed to have another role within al-Shabaab than that of suicide bombers, the court added.

Jama’s lawyer Richard Backenroth said the freeing of his client proved the Swedish judiciary worked well.

“It’s a happy end to this story that the prosecutor and security police have been working on,” he told the local Göteborgs-Posten (GP) daily.

Prosecutor Qvarnström said Wednesday she was not surprised at the ruling, pointing out that the court had decided at the end of the trial three weeks ago to release the two men pending the verdict.

“This was not completely unexpected,” she told the TT news agency, adding that the case had been “very difficult” to prosecute.

Asked whether she planned to appeal to the Supreme Court, she said it might be difficult to get the country’s highest court to review a case where the jurisprudence was not in question, but which had been dismissed due to a lack of evidence.

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Why is Gothenburg known as Sweden’s ‘Little London’?

With ties to Britain dating back more than 200 years, the city of Gothenburg has long been known as Sweden’s Little London.

Why is Gothenburg known as Sweden’s 'Little London'?

Grey skies, rainy days, a wide-mouthed river, and a love for English pubs. At first glance, it’s no wonder that Gothenburg has long held the nickname of Sweden’s own “Little London”, or Lilla London

But what are the origins of this British title?

“The nickname ‘Little London’ was first used in a newspaper in 1766,” explains Håkan Strömberg, educational officer at the Museum of Gothenburg.

“The Brits were the largest immigration group during the 1700s and early 1800s, mainly because Sweden was a country close by, it was economically underdeveloped compared to England and Scotland and had a lot of raw materials. To put it simply, could make some money here.”

The city’s reputation as a British enclave dates back to the 1700s when trade brought many foreign influences to the Västra Götaland region.

As merchants and shipbuilders like Charles Chapman, David Carnegie, and James Dickson moved to the area, local residents began to notice a growing list of similarities between the Swedish port city and the British capital.

Indeed, even one of Sweden’s most renowned scientists, Carl Von Linné, is said to have commented on the similarities between the two cities when he visited Gothenburg in the 1700s.

 “Being a group of upper-class immigrants, the British merchants made sure they had access to all the good things from their home country. But the feeling of Gothenburg as a Little London was most likely something the Swedish citizens had, rather than the Brits,” adds Strömberg. 

The historical roots that connect the UK and Gothenburg are still evident today, with many spots in the city still alluding to British names, like Chalmers University – founded by the son of a wealthy Scottish industrialist, or Chapmans Torgnamed after a family of sailors and shipbuilders once well-established in the area. 

Catriona Chaplin, a British expat turned Gothenburger, only began to see the similarities and know of the nickname after relocating to the region for work. Growing up in Leicestershire, central England, she’d never heard of London’s Swedish sibling city.

“We came to Gothenburg 17 years ago. We’d never heard about [the nickname] until we moved here, but there is a bar on Avenyn called Lilla London, so that’s when we started to know about it,” she says.

Today, as the membership secretary of the British Club of Gothenburg, she brings a taste of the British Isles to life in Gothenburg.

The Club, which organises social events like concerts, quiz nights, and theatre performances, has a membership base of nearly 200 families. And although less than 0.5 percent of Gothenburg’s population today was born in the UK, the club welcomes members from a range of nationalities.

In fact, the only membership requirement is having some kind of interest in the UK, be it from a cultural standpoint, a past tourist experience, or a love of the language. 

“People come to the British Club just to socialise in their native language. It’s also about the culture, like the banter, the jokes and playing on words,” she says. 

Although the city’s British roots run deep, questions remain about modern-day Gothenburg’s status as “Little London”.

To some, the west-coast maritime hub’s industrial legacy, strong working-class culture, and amiable nature are reminiscent of a different English city. “They ought to call it ‘Little Liverpool’!” says Chaplin, with a smile. 

Lasting Landmarks

Evidence of Gothenburg’s British connections can be found in many of its landmarks, shops, and of course, pubs. Some of the historical hotspots still apparent today include:

Haga – The British ‘hood 

The area of Haga, just outside the old city, was once considered a slum, but changed character thanks to British philanthropist Robert Dickson (1782-1858), who built public baths, a library, and other landmarks with the typical red bricks found in Britain at the time.

St Andrew’s Church 

A key part of the British community is the Anglican church of Saint Andrew’s, also in Haga. Dedicated to the patron saint of Scotland, it was built and to date funded by ‘The British Factory’, a British society founded in the 1700s to help expats in Gothenburg that remains active even today.

The Victorian gothic style of the church is in line with the architectural trend in Britain at the time. 

John Scott – a legend among Gothenburgers

One of Gothenburg’s most well-loved establishments is John Scott’s, a local pub chain named after Pastor John Henry Scott, an Englishman and prominent landowner in 18th century Gothenburg. 

The “English quarter”

The square of buildings delineated by Teatergatan, Storgatan, Kungsportsavenyn and Vasagatan was once known as the city’s English Quarter. The buildings in this neighbourhood are influenced by British design, and the original landowners were in fact English pastor John Henry Scott and his wife, Jacobina.

By Alexander Maxia, Lisa Ostrowski and Sanna Sailer