The 38-year-old woman received serious burns in the incident, but her injuries are reportedly not life threatening.
"She has injuries from her midsection and upward and on the entire front of her body...both her her torso and arms. But her face is in pretty good shape," police spokesperson Peter Martin told the local Skånska Dagbladet newspaper.
According to Martin, investigators believe the woman was drenched in a flammable liquid which was then ignited by her 53-year-old husband.
"The woman wanted a divorce but the man didn't. He was said to be very controlling," police spokesperson Anders Lindell told the Expressen newspaper.
The couple's two children were also present in the apartment at the time, but were unharmed in the incident and have since been taken in by neighbours.
Police received a call shortly after noon on Sunday about a disturbance in a flat in the city's Rosengård district.
A short time later, emergency services received a call about a fire at the same address.
When fire crews arrived they were met by a woman who had fled out of the apartment. Her clothes had been burned and she was taken by ambulance to Skåne University Hospital in Malmö.
"We heard there was a fire in the building, but when we got there we only found a little smoke in the apartment. A woman whose clothes had been burned ran out of the flat," emergency services commander Mats Steer told Expressen.
The 53-year-old husband who was still in the apartment was overpowered by police and apprehended on suspicions of attempted murder with an alternative charge of aggravated assault.
The man was placed in arrest later in the evening and interrogated about the incident and denies committing any crime.
Another man was also taken to the police station for questioning, but only as a witness.