Vilks is one of eleven targets named in an English language pamphlet published on several militant websites by AQAP – Al-Qaeda’s branch in the Arabian peninsula.
American pastor Terry Jones, writer Salman Rushdie, Dutch politician Geert Wilders and Danish artist Kurt Westergaard were others mentioned.
The targets are listed with name and photo in a two page spread entitled “Yes we can. A bullet a day keeps the infidel away” and shows a mock up of Terry Jones being shot in the head.
The pamphlet, published under the name Inspire Magazine, also called on French troops to leave Mali and gives advice on how to ignite a car.
The magazine has been in circulation since July 2010 and typically includes tips on how to carry out various terrorist activities and attacks.
Lars Vilks has faced numerous death threats and a suspected assassination plot since his drawing of the Muslim prophet with the body of a dog was first published by Swedish regional daily Nerikes Allehanda in 2007.
It illustrated an editorial on the importance of freedom of expression.
The drawing by Vilks prompted protests by Muslims in the town of Örebro, west of Stockholm, where the newspaper is based.
Egypt, Iran and Pakistan also made formal complaints about the drawing.