The victim, Alf Stefan Andersson, had worked as a professor of women's reproductive health at the University of Houston since 2009.
"The victim had both Swedish and US citizenship. He took American citizenship sometime during the 1990s," Sara Brandt-Hansen, a spokeswoman with the Swedish foreign ministry, told the Dagens Nyheter (DN) newspaper.
His girlfriend, 44-year-old Ana Lilia Trujillo, has been arrested and charged with murder after police found Andersson at 4am on Sunday lying on the floor of his Houston apartment with multiple stab wounds to the head, ABC News reported.
He was pronounced dead on the scene.
Police arrived at Andersson's home after receiving a call that an assault was underway at the normally quiet luxury apartment complex of Houston's Museum District.
Officials with the local prosecutor's office told the Houston Chronicle newspaper that Trujillo claimed she carried out the attack in self-defence.
She remains in jail on $100,000 bond and is due to appear at a court hearing on Tuesday.
News of Andersson's death left officials at the University of Houston reeling.
"The University of Houston community is saddened to learn of the tragic death of Professor Stefan Andersson. Our hearts go out to his colleagues, family and friends during this difficult time," the university said in a statement.
According to DN, the Swedish embassy in Washington, DC is following the case.