The fire broke out in the early hours of Monday morning in the town of Gislaved, and emergency services managed to quell the flames after several hours.
A pet store in the vicinity caught fire too, seeing extensive smoke damage,
"Many animals died, unfortunately," firefighter Anders Björk told the TT news agency.
"There are only a few birds who survived. There were quite a few dead rodents, but around 20 survived."
He added that all the fish escaped unharmed, and that the electricity to their tanks had been restored.
Several other stores were damaged in the blaze, including a toy shop and a florist.
Authorities are unsure what caused the fire, but added that there were no signs that there had been a break in.