The Social Democrat party leader is attending a United Nations meeting in connection with the 25th anniversary of the Unicef Convention on the Rights of the Child, an international human rights treaty designed to protect children around the world.
Sweden's Queen Silvia, who is a patron of several children's rights charities will also be present.
In a statement, Unicef said of the anniversary:
"There is much to celebrate...from declining infant mortality to rising school enrolment, but this historic milestone must also serve as an urgent reminder that much remains to be done. Too many children still do not enjoy their full rights on par with their peers".
Stefan Löfven will be in the United States for three days and is also set to hold a separate meeting with UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon.
His press secretary Erik Nises told Sweden's Expressen newspaper that the pair would be discussing environmental issues including how to "work to achieve a sufficiently ambitious global climate agreement" at a key global summit in Paris next year.
They are also scheduled to discuss international policies on gender discrimination and sustainable development.
The Swedish prime minister will meet former US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, visit the New York branch of Swedish music streaming site Spotify and give a lecture at New York University.
Danish Prime Minister Helle Thorning-Schmidt, Norwegian Labour party leader Jonas Gahr Støre and Sweden's Prime Minister Stefan Löfven. Photo: Lise Åserud/TT
The US trip is Löfven's first outside Europe since he was elected, although he has made several visits to neighbouring Baltic states including Finland, Norway and Denmark.
On a recent visit to Oslo, Löfven was included in a selfie photo with Norwegian Labour party leader Jonas Gahr Støre and Danish Prime Minister Helle Thorning-Schmidt.
The Danish stateswoman snapped a similar picture with President Obama and British Prime Minister David Cameron at Nelson Mandela's funeral in 2013, a move that divided political and media commentators, with some suggesting it was distasteful, while others said it showed that politicians had a human side and a good grasp of new technologies.