The study suggests that more than 1.6 million Swedes enjoy the sport.
Sweden's population is just 9.6 million.
"That there were so many came as a bit of a surprise," said Håkan Carlstrand, a researcher at Sweden's Marine and Water Authority (HAV), which commissioned the study by Statistics Sweden.
He told news agency TT that anglers under the age of sixteen were not included in the study and said he suspected there were also "a couple of hundred thousand" children who enjoyed the sport.
Carlstrand said the research presented a "good picture" of fishing and its popularity in Sweden.
It is the first time that official statistics on recreational fishing have been released.
The report also estimates the annual fish catch by hobby anglers to be around 16,000 tonnes and suggests that Swedes spend a total of around 5 billion kronor a year on fishing.
Close to 10,000 randomly selected people participated in the survey.