The teenager, who hasn't been named by Swedish media, says he was seriously injured in the shooting and managed to crawl to a bus stop before calling Sweden's emergency services.
He dialed the emergency number 112 several times but was cut off. After then trying the general number for police in Sweden, 114 14, he says the operator did not believe his story.
"I was frustrated and yelled that I was dying. Yet she did not believe me," he said of the woman who picked up the call in an interview with local Sveriges Radio network P4 Jönköping.
The attack on the boy took place last October during a shootout in Norrahammar just outside Jönköping in southern Sweden. He was also stabbed during the incident in which his friend, 17, died.
According to the surviving teenager, the phone operator thought he was lying, because he could not tell her is exact location.
"It was horrible, I was panicking and anxious and thought I would die," he told P4, which has listened to telephone recordings of the conversation.
When he told the operator that he had been shot in the head, the woman answered: "But where in the head? How can it be that you are able to call if you have been shot".
The boy replied: "Come here please. I'm dead in a minute".
After trying to reach friends and family members instead, he eventually got through to a different operator via 112 and an ambulance was called to the scene.
"I do not feel good. I think my friend might have been saved if the ambulance had arrived immediately," he told P4.
Two 17-year-olds were charged with murder and intention to kill on Wednesday in connection with the attack on the pair.
The survivor says he wanted to speak about the case because he felt it was "important that people get to know that stories that sound exaggerated can be true".
Sweden's emergency services have launched an internal investigation into how the operator handled the case.