Emergency services were called to a street in Bergsjön, north east of Sweden’s second largest city in the early hours of Friday morning after gunshots were heard in the neighbourhood.
They found a severely injured man in his twenties who had been shot.
The victim was pronounced dead soon after he was taken to hospital.
According to the TT news agency, no arrests have so far been made, but police are investigating whether or not the killing was gang-related.
Officers are also continuing to investigate a separate shooting which took place earlier in the week.
The attacks come just weeks after several high-profile killings in the city.
In April, two men were killed in less than 24 hours in the Hisingen and Angered areas of the city. This took place just a month after two people died and eight others were injured following a shooting in the Biskopsgården suburb, which made global headlines.
The events sparked a national debate about gun crime in Sweden's second city.
“Today, the gang environment is… I don't want to exactly call it the Wild West, but something in that direction,” Amir Rostami, a leading authority on Sweden's organized crime groups told The Local after the Biskopsgården shooting.
Last year 52 shootings were reported in Gothenburg. Four people died and 21 were wounded in the attacks.