Around 40 to 50 firefighters from six different stations battled the inferno for several hours after they were called to the scene in the Kortedala suburb of western Sweden's biggest city shortly after midnight.
There were no injuries, but the building had to be evacuated. Crews reported the fire was under control by 5am, but there was still smoke rising shortly before 9am on Tuesday morning.
A total of 193 people live in the housing block's 70 apartments, but it was not clear how many were there at the time when the blaze begun.
“We're trying to keep the fire at a distance from the stairwells so that it doesn't spread to the apartments underneath it,” Lars Adrian, fire and rescue duty head in the greater Gothenburg area told the TT newswire.
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The 200-metre long and four-storey high residential building was quickly ravaged by flames after the fire spread through the attic. Adrian described the blaze as a “chimney lying down”.
A police investigation has been launched into so-called 'devastation endangering the public'. Officers believe the fire started in a kitchen, spreading via the ventilator shaft up to the attic and the roof.
“There are no suspects as of yet,” Johan Ljung, regional police control room officer, told TT.