The Swedish Teacher: When do you use sin, sitt and sina?

Swedish teacher Sara Hörberg explains the best tips, tricks and pitfalls to watch out for when learning the Swedish language.

The Swedish Teacher: When do you use sin, sitt and sina?
Swedish is trickier than you think. Photo: Kurtikam/Depositphotos

Sin, sitt & sina

Some parts of the Swedish language are more important than others to master. What I mean is, that even though it is good to know which words are en and which are ett, it is not a disaster if you happen to say “en hus” or “ett bok”.

Using the wrong pronoun (such as han, hon, den) could cause more confusion. Take a look at this classic example:

1. Patrik kysser sin fru.

2. Patrik kysser hans fru.

In English, both sentences translate to “Patrik is kissing his wife”. In Swedish however, you make a distinction between “his own wife” = sin, and his as in someone else's wife.

If we swap sin and hans for names, it might get more clear what I mean:

1. Patrik kysser Patriks (sin) fru.

2. Patrik kysser Henriks (hans) fru.

In other words, if Patrik is the subject of the sentence and he is also the “owner” (pardon me, Patrik's wife) of the object, then we express that ownership by using sin instead of hans.

It is of course not only hans that sometimes should be replaced with sin. It is also the case for hennes, dess, ens and deras. It is also good to know that sin changes to sitt if the object is an ett-word, and to sina if the object is plural.

Like this:

Patrik har målat sitt hus i sommar.

(Patrik has painted his own house this summer.)

Compare the sentence above to:

Patrik har målat hans/hennes/deras hus i sommar.

(Patrik has painted his (maybe Göran's)/her/their house this summer.)

How nice of Patrik to paint someone else's house!

Patrik ska hämta sina barn på förskolan.

(Patrik is going to pick up his children at pre-school.)

Compare to:

Patrik ska hämta hans/hennes/deras barn på förskolan.

(Patrik is going to pick up his (maybe Kristian's)/her/their children at pre-school.)

Patrik is in this case not picking up his own children at pre-school. Hopefully, he has notified the staff…

Is this Patrik's or Kristian's child? Photo: Izabelle Nordfjell/TT

Now, let us take a closer look at a few more complicated sentences because that is when usually when sin/hans/hennes/deras get a bit tricky.

Patrik tycker om maten som hans fru lagar.

(Patrik likes the food that his wife cooks.)

Olle sitter uppe, eftersom hans dotter inte har kommit hem än.

(Olle is waiting up since his daughter is not home yet.)

Anna och hennes pojkvän ska äta på restaurang ikväll.

(Anna and her boyfriend are going out for dinner tonight.)

At this point in class, some students are ready to leave the classroom. “Why not 'sin' all of a sudden?”

The explanation for the first and second examples is that we cannot look at the whole sentence and figure out subject and object, we have to look at each clause of the sentence. So let's do that:

Patrik tycker om maten…

This section of the sentence is our main clause (huvudsats) in which “Patrik” is subject.

… som hans fru lagar

This is a subordinate clause (bisats) and hans fru is the subject in it. Only an object can use the pronoun sin, sitt or sina. The same explanation goes for example number two:

Olle sitter uppe…

is the main clause (huvudsats), and “Olle” is the subject.

… eftersom hans dotter inte har kommit hem än.

is the subordinated clause (bisats) in which hans dotter is the subject, and therefore cannot be sin.

When you are out there speaking Swedish, you probably don’t have time to analyze sentence structure and subject/object. Make it simple and don’t use sin, sitt and sina after common subjunctions (bisatsord) such as som, att, eftersom, därför att and om.

But what about the third example? Again we should take a closer look and find out if we are dealing with an object and an owner of that object:

Anna och hennes pojkvän

In this case, Anna och hennes pojkvän both constitute the subject of the sentence, and therefore we shouldn’t use och sin pojkvän. So, if there is an och after the obvious subject, think twice before using sin, sitt or sina.

Sara Hörberg began teaching Swedish as a foreign/second language in 2001. Ask her anything about grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation. Read more here: Sara the Swedish Teacher.

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What irritates Swedes the most about the Swedish language?

A new study shows that more than one in five Swedes is irritated by the pronoun "hen", and the same number can't stand it when compound words are split up. Here's a rundown of the main offenders.

What irritates Swedes the most about the Swedish language?

One in five Swedes dislike the gender-neutral pronoun hen

In the study, carried out by Novus on behalf of language magazine Språktidningen, 22 percent of Swedes said that the pronoun hen was the most irritating aspect of the Swedish language. 

The first reported use of the gender-neutral pronoun, to be used instead of han (he) or hon (she), was in the 1950s, when it was used by language professor Karl-Hampus Dahlstedt, but it didn’t appear in writing until linguist Rolf Dunås wrote a newspaper article in 1966 proposing the introduction of the new pronoun.

After that, use of the pronoun was mostly limited to those within the LGBT community until 2012, when a children’s book sparked debate and media attention thanks to the exclusive use of hen to refer to its characters.

In 2015, hen entered the Swedish dictionary, a move which made it more difficult for critics to argue that it wasn’t an established or accepted alternative to han or hon.

As Språktidningen’s editor-in-chief Anders Svensson points out in this article, the pronoun hen has had an ideological and political dimension since debate took off in 2012, and this is still clearly visible today.

Although 22 percent of the survey’s respondents listed hen as the most irritating aspect of the Swedish language, this number rose to a whopping 50 percent amongst respondents who identified with the Sweden Democrats.

On the other side of the political spectrum, those sympathising with the Left Party, the Greens, the Liberals or the Centre Party were least likely to find hen irritating, with a mere 5 to 7 percent of these groups putting it in first place.

Torbjörn Sjöström, CEO of polling company Novus, told Språktidningen that these results didn’t surprise him.

“The fact that hen is irritating for Sweden Democrat sympathisers more than others is not surprising. People join that party because they want things to be like they were in the past. A new word which is gender-neutral symbolises a lot of the developments these people are against,” he explained.

One in five against särskrivning

The same amount, 22 percent, stated that särskrivningar – writing compound words incorrectly as two separate words – annoyed them the most.

This may sound like a minor error, but särskrivningar (literally: “separate writing”) can lead to major misunderstandings. Just look at these amusing examples of särskrivning gone wrong:

En rödhårig kvinna: “a red-haired woman”

En röd hårig kvinna: a red, hairy woman

Kassapersonalen: “checkout workers”

Kassa personalen: “useless employees”

Barnunderkläder: “children’s underwear”

Barn under kläder: “child under clothes”

In contrast to debates over the use of the word hen, debates over särskrivning have raged since the 1800s, where they were often considered to be major mistakes if featured in a text. One reason for this, Svensson notes, is that order in itself was seen as beautiful at this time.

Maria Bylin, language advisor at the Swedish Language Council (Språkrådet), told Språktidningen that she recognises this argument in modern debate on särskrivningar.

“You associate developments in the language with the country and with society,” she explained. “So whatever changes you can see in the language, you think it will happen in society, too.”

One popular scapegoat for this increase in särskrivning is the influence of English on the Swedish language. In English, we have fewer compound words than in Swedish, although they do still exist: a few examples are postbox, doorknob and blackberry. It is, however, harder to form compounds than in Swedish.

To return to the examples above, it would look strange to write “redhairedgirl”, “checkoutworker” or “childrensunderwear” as compounds in English.

So, is the rise of English to blame for mistakes in Swedish? Not according to linguist Katharina Hallencreutz, who noted when studying high school students’ English essays that they had no issues writing English compound loan words such as makeup or popcorn. 

This also wouldn’t explain the large amount of särskrivningar seen in historical texts in Sweden: they feature heavily in laws dating back to the 1200s, as well as Gustav Vasa’s Swedish bible translation, which was published in 1541.

One surprising result of the survey was the fact that young people were more likely than older people to find särskrivningar irritating:

“That surprised me a bit,” Svensson told public broadcaster SVT. “Often you hear the argument that older people think young people write carelessly and särskriver too much.”

Svensson wasn’t sure why this was, but did have a theory: “I suppose those who have recently finished school – most of them have learnt when words should be written as one word, and when they should be separate,” he told SVT.

English loanwords

The influence of English on the Swedish language was a major bugbear for a number of respondents, though. As many as 15 percent of those in Novus’ survey answered that “unnecessary English loanwords” were the most irritating thing about modern Swedish.

English loanwords were most irritating amongst Swedes over 65, where 29 percent stated they were the number one source of irritation, a number which was much lower in other age groups.

Lena Lind Palicki, a Swedish lecturer at Stockholm University, said that this could be to do with comprehensibility. She noted that irritation over English loanwords was especially high amongst older respondents who had left school at 16.

“We can assume that these people have a lower level of English, and then it’s a democratic problem, if English loanwords are used which can be difficult for many people to understand,” she told Språktidningen.

Palicki can’t imagine that English will remain as large a source of annoyance in the future as it is now, though.

“The irritation over English loanwords may have gone out of date in twenty years. Today’s youth will not start to be irritated by the same things as today’s elderly, but they’ll probably start making a symbolic issue of things they struggle with in school today,” she told the magazine.