Social Democrats (Socialdemokraterna)
Who: Stefan Löfven
Current role: Prime Minister of Sweden since 2014
Swedish PM Stefan Löfven. Photo: Helena Wande/TT
Background: Formerly the head of one of the country's most powerful unions, IF Metall, Stefan Löfven was persuaded to stand for leadership following then-record-low poll ratings for the Social Democrats in 2012 and led the party to victory in the parliamentary elections two years later. He started his career as a welder after growing up with an adoptive family in Örnsköldsvik, a small industrial town in northern Sweden. Löfven's time in office hasn't been easy: it started with him calling a snap election after his party's budget was blocked in parliament in late 2014, and though that was cancelled after his centre-left coalition struck a deal with the centre-right Alliance parties, there was little time to rest as he was tasked with guiding Sweden's response to the record 163,000 people who sought asylum in the country in 2015 at the peak of the refugee crisis.
His government responded by introducing temporary border controls and ID checks at southern borders, reducing the number of asylum seekers coming to the country dramatically. In July 2017 a scandal developed when it emerged that IT workers in foreign countries without the correct security clearance had access to Swedish Transport Agency data, and the result was an opposition no-confidence motion against three of Löfven's ministers. He reacted by producing a cabinet reshuffle that removed two of the ministers in question, but the opposition's failure to oust well-respected Defence Minister Peter Hultqvist meant that Löfven came out of the incident largely unscathed. Still, the head of Sweden's government doesn't look likely to have an easy ride towards the election in 2018, with his party polling worse than ever.
Party: The Social Democrats are the oldest and largest party in Sweden and dominated the political landscape until the 1990s. The party promotes workers' rights and built the modern Swedish welfare state, paid for by progressive taxation. After a crushing defeat in 2006, the Social Democrats continued to lose votes in 2010, particularly from Sweden's urban middle class. The party bounced back after Löfven took over as leader and returned to power in a coalition with the Green Party following the general election in September 2014, but has since dropped to new record levels in the polls.
Some of the party's more controversial policies in their current term have been recognizing Palestine which has contributed to a deterioration in relations with Israel and implementing temporary border controls. Its push for a feminist foreign policy saw relations with Saudi Arabia grow frosty in 2015 meanwhile, resulting in Sweden cancelling a military cooperation agreement with the country.
Number of seats: 113
Green Party (Miljöpartiet)
Who: Gustav Fridolin and Isabella Lövin
Age: 35 and 55
Current role: Joint Green Party spokespeople and ministers in Stefan Löfven's government
Isabella Lövin and Gustav Fridolin. Photo: Erik Simander/TT
Background: Gustav Fridolin was the youngest member of parliament in Swedish history when he was first elected in 2002. He serves as Education Minister in Sweden's current centre-left government and became joint spokesperson for the party in 2011 alongside Åsa Romson, a Stockholm-based lawyer who resigned from her position in 2016 following a series of gaffes. Romson was replaced by Minister for International Development Cooperation and former journalist Isabella Lövin, who also became Deputy Prime Minister and has had a less dramatic time at the helm than her predecessor. Lövin has even gained something of an international reputation for her criticism of US President Donald Trump on abortion rights.
Party: The Greens first won seats in the Swedish parliament in 1988. They had hoped to become the third largest party in the September 2014 elections, but lost out to the nationalist Sweden Democrats. The Greens did, however, enter government for the first time in 2014, after forming a coalition with the Social Democrats. The party is focused on fighting climate change and promotes policies designed to protect the planet for future generation. Their time in government has however also been shaped by a crisis in 2016 that saw one of its ministers quit over allegations he was keeping company with Turkish extremists, another Green politician resign after he refused to shake a female reporter's hand on the grounds that it violated his Muslim faith, and finally the resignation of co-leader Romson, who referred to the 9/11 terrorist attacks as “accidents” in a slip of the tongue on one of Sweden's most-watched breakfast shows.
The Greens have plummeted in the polls and are struggling to take back any meaningful ground despite little controversy since. Recovering in the September election will be an uphill battle.
Number of seats: 25
Moderate Party (Moderaterna)
Who: Ulf Kristersson
Current role: Party leader and head of the centre-right opposition
New Moderate leader Ulf Kristersson. Photo: Sören Andersson/TT
Background: Ulf Kristersson took over as leader of the Moderates after Anna Kinberg Batra was ousted by the conservative party in September 2017 following a dip in the polls after the party broke a Swedish taboo by softening the stance towards the anti-immigration Sweden Democrats. Kristersson has been accused of not being clear about whether or not he is prepared to cooperate with the far-right party. He has said he will not negotiate with them, but when asked has also stopped short of labelling the party “racist”.
The dad-of-three and former finance spokesperson of the Moderates in opposition was Minister of Social Security 2010-2014 in former leader Fredrik Reinfeldt's popular centre-right coalition government. According to Kristersson's profile on the party website, he enjoys hunting, photography, tennis, running and Swedish rock and pop music. He was born in Lund and grew up in Torshälla.
Party: The Moderates' traditional focus on law and order issues, job creation and cutting taxes does not appear to be resonating to the degree that it once did as Sweden's political climate fragments.
The Moderates are Sweden's biggest opposition party at the moment, but with recent polls showing them battling for popularity with the Sweden Democrats, they may not be for much longer. The September 9th election will show whether or not Kristersson has been able to turn things around for his party.
Number of seats: 83
Centre Party (Centerpartiet)
Who: Annie Lööf
Current role: Party leader
Annie Lööf. Photo: Erik Simander/TT
Background: Annie Lööf became MP for Jönköping County in southern Sweden when she was just 23 years old and was selected to become leader of the party in 2011. She has a degree in law and lives in Nacka, Stockholm. A former Minister for Enterprise in the Fredrik Reinfeldt-led Alliance government, since returning from a six-month parental leave break in 2016 Lööf has experienced a surge in popularity, with several polls in 2017 placing her as the political leader most Swedes have confidence in. She is particularly popular among centre-right voters with an international and progressive mindset.
Party: The Centre Party has rural roots, emerging from Sweden's Farmers' League, which was set up more than one hundred years ago, and while agricultural and environmental issues remain key concerns alongside allowing local communities to make their own decisions, the party has tried to attract urban voters more recently by promising help for small businesses and criticizing tough work permit rules for foreigners.
A Statistics Sweden survey published in June 2017 gave the Centre Party 11.3 percent of the vote, their highest figures in a Statistics Sweden poll in 27 years. Key to their recent revival has likely been a clearer distancing from the polarizing Sweden Democrats than the Moderates that has allowed them to nab more centrist centre-right voters from their coalition partner, as well as the popularity of Lööf. Whether the party can translate that into meaningful gains in the election remains to be seen.
Number of seats: 22
The Liberals (Liberalerna)
Who: Jan Björklund
Current role: Party leader
Jan Björklund. Photo: Erik Simander/TT
Background: A former major in the Swedish army, Jan Björklund first became a member of parliament in 2006. Originally from the west coast of Sweden, he now lives in Bromma in Stockholm with his wife and two sons. He cries easily, makes good pancakes and enjoys listening to Frank Sinatra, according to the Liberals' website. In mid-2017 Björklund faced a challenge for his position as Liberal leader from Birgitta Ohlsson, a prominent party member and former EU minister in the Reinfeldt government, but most of the party's heavyweights backed the 56-year-old and he remains in his position for now.
Party: The Liberal Party is part of the centre-right Alliance. Its core supporters are middle-class voters. The party is focused on improving education, being open-but-tough on immigration, joining Nato and nuclear expansion. It also promotes what it calls “feminism without socialism”, aiming to secure equal opportunities by investing in work sectors dominated by women and encouraging men to share childcare responsibilities. The party has had a tough time in the polls in recent years, with an approval rating of 3.5 percent below the Riksdag watermark registered in April 2015, and despite managing to improve to around the 5-6 percent mark in 2017, they have not been able to capitalize on the trouble coalition partners the Moderates are experiencing in the same way the Centre Party have. It used to be called 'Folkpartiet' ('the people's party') up until 2015, when it changed its name to 'Liberalerna' .
Number of seats: 19
Christian Democrats (Kristdemokraterna)
Who: Ebba Busch Thor
Current role: Party Leader
Ebba Busch Thor. Photo: Erik Simander/TT
Background: A graduate in Peace and Conflict Studies at Uppsala University, Ebba Busch Thor grew up in the nearby town of Gunsta and has been active in the Christian Democrats since 2006. She was working as councillor in student city Uppsala when she was chosen to take over as party head from Göran Hägglund in April 2015. The youngest leader of a Swedish political party, Busch Thor is married to Niklas Busch Thor, a former football player for Uppsala team IK Sirius FK.
Party: The Christian Democrats have been trying to move away from their religious roots and build wider support, but the party is struggling to gain popularity. Its increasingly tough stance on immigration has also cost it some of its supporters who back traditionally Christian values. It only just reached the four-percent threshold needed to secure seats in the Swedish parliament in the last general election in September 2014, and polls suggest they will see a similar result this year. Areas their policies focus on include welfare for the elderly and a hard-line stance on extremism.
Number of seats: 16
Sweden Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna)
Who: Jimmie Åkesson
Current role: Party leader
Jimmie Åkesson. Photo: Ari Luostarinen/TT
Background: An early entrant into politics, Jimmie Åkesson began his career as a city councillor in his home town, Sölvesborg in southern Sweden, after joining the party's youth wing as a teenager. After leading the Sweden Democrats to a record 12.9 percent of the vote in the September 2014 election, he took a break due to chronic fatigue before returning in 2015 but it does not appear to have harmed his popularity, with opinion polls currently placing his party at around the 20 percent mark.
Party: The nationalist Sweden Democrats were founded in 1988, evolving from far-right organizations with neo-Nazi roots. In recent years the party has worked to tone down its image as a racist and extremist group. However, cutting immigration remains the party's main goal and it does not support dual nationality, with the exception of Nordic citizens.
Sweden's third biggest party following the 2014 election, the Sweden Democrats had the chance to be kingmakers in parliament and sparked a government crisis shortly after the vote when they helped block the centre-left coalition's budget proposal. An unprecedented deal between the Social Democrat-Green government and the centre-right opposition ended the crisis and froze Åkesson's party out for the time being, but a recent thawing towards them from the Moderates show that they still have the capacity to influence even without formal power. The polls suggest they will be an influence in the future too.
Number of seats: 42
Left Party (Vänsterpartiet)
Who: Jonas Sjöstedt
Current role: Party leader
Jonas Sjöstedt. Photo: Erik Simander/TT
Background: Born in Gothenburg, Jonas Sjöstedt is a former metal worker who has also worked in Strasbourg and Brussels as a member of the European Parliament and in New York where he wrote for left-wing magazines and newspapers. He has been a member of the Swedish parliament since 2010. Sjöstedt is married to Swedish diplomat Ann Måwe who is part of the Swedish delegation to the United Nations.
Party: As its name suggests, the Left Party is the most left-wing group in the Swedish parliament. It has a long history and described itself as communist until the 1990s. The Left Party has never served in government but usually offers support to Social Democrat governments whenever they are in power, although they also often criticize the centre-left on issues they don't see eye to eye on. The party is against the privatization of public companies and supports higher taxes to fund Sweden's welfare state.
Number of seats: 21
Article first published in 2017 and updated in 2018.