Emergency services including 30 firefighters were on the scene at the Rosengalleria mall in Huskvarna, eastern Jönköping, where the alarm was first raised shortly after 2.30 pm.
The shopping centre houses a gym, a bank, and several homes in addition to its 25 shops.
No injuries had been reported by 3:30 pm, but firefighters were continuing checks on the building.
“There are no injuries as far as we know, but we have a number of ambulances at the scene,” Kenneth Hermansson from Jönköping's emergency services told the TT newswire. “There is a lot of smoke. We have extinguished some of the fire, but we are continuing to observe the situation.”