The baby was found in good health two hours after her disappearance sparked a major police search in the western Swedish city.
The woman, aged in her 40s, said that she had only intended to take the pram and didn't understand that there was a baby inside when she took it. She also said during the trial that she had been under the influence of drugs and alcohol; when she was first detained she was unable to undergo police questioning until the following day due to her condition.
But she has now been sentenced to two years in prison by Gothenburg District Court, Göteborgs Posten reported, after being found guilty of unlawful deprivation of liberty and two minor drugs offences. The woman must also pay 12,000 kronor (around $1,280 or £980) in damages.
The incident took place in the Hisingen district of Gothenburg in January this year.
The baby's mother told police she had left the baby girl in the pram outside a kindergarten while she went inside to pick up her older child. When she came back outside five to ten minutes later, the baby and the pram were gone.
Police launched a major search operation and called in extra resources, including police dogs and a helicopter. The baby was found two hours later, when a member of the public reported seeing the pram outside a shop several kilometres away from the kindergarten.