‘Alarm bells should ring’: New study sheds light on problems in Sweden’s vulnerable areas

One in 18 of Sweden's residents lives in a so-called vulnerable area, where criminality is higher than average and trust in authorities lower. A new study reveals how political priorities differ in these neighbourhoods compared to the general population.

'Alarm bells should ring': New study sheds light on problems in Sweden's vulnerable areas
People attend the Järvaveckan political week in 2019, one holding a pamphlet with the slogan 'Who cares'. Photo: Anders Wiklund/TT

In general, people in these areas said there have been positive developments in police work over the past five years, but negative trends in criminality. And their trust in Swedish media, politicians, and local authorities was much lower than for the Swedish population as a whole.

In the report, carried out by Novus on behalf of The Global Village Foundation, residents of 60 socioeconomically vulnerable areas were asked about how things had developed in these areas, and their relationship with different Swedish authorities.

Almost half (46 percent) thought that over the past five years things had got worse when it came to crime.

People in these areas were significantly more likely than the general population to have personal experience of crime.

Three times as many respondents had experienced or knew someone who had experienced a shooting (17 percent), twice as many knew someone who had been affected by religious radicalisation (13 percent) and twice as many for so-called honour violence (6 percent). 

Looking only at the figures for young men from vulnerable areas, these figures were even higher: 43 percent had witnessed or knew someone who had witnessed drug selling, and the equivalent figures were 21 percent for shootings, 30 percent for assault and 17 percent for radicalisation.

Skäggetorp in Linköping is one of the 60 areas. Photo: Jeppe Gustafsson / TT

People in vulnerable areas were also exposed to discrimination to a higher extent: 36 percent personally knew someone who had experienced discrimination, compared to 27 percent in the general population. Among young adults (18-29 years), 45 percent had personally experienced or know someone who had been discriminated against.

One promising finding was that over half (53 percent) of those surveyed said that police development was moving in the right direction over the past five years. That figure was almost twice as high as for the general population, only 24 percent of whom thought police work had improved.

In recent years, police and other emergency services have worked hard to build trust in these neighbourhoods. Part of this is simply identifying the socioeconomically areas, which have been categorised since 2015 – although some local authorities have called for the list not to be made public due to the stigma associated with the label.

Police have also focused on working closely with local communities including through school visits and supporting local business owners. 

In vulnerable areas, residents said they believed the top three political issues for Sweden were healthcare, immigration, and schools, and that the top issues for their neighbourhood were law and order, schools, and integration.

Those are more or less the same top issues as for the Swedish population as a whole, with one important difference: integration was a higher priority for those in vulnerable areas.

Among the general population, the top issues for Sweden were reported as healthcare, immigration, and the labour market, and within their own neighbourhood schools, law and order, and immigration.

There were also key differences in levels of trust for different institutions.

Almost two thirds (64 percent) had high trust in police, compared to 41 percent trust for the Swedish media and just 47 percent trust in the government. And nearly two thirds of those surveyed said that there was too great a distance between Swedish politicians and ordinary citizens.

This was backed up by the fact that only 26 percent of those surveyed said they personally knew a politician, compared to 45 percent of people living in Sweden as a whole. Respondents were significantly more likely to answer 'yes' to that question if they had a high level of education or were born in Sweden.

Fittja in southern Stockholm. Photo: Tomas Oneborg/SvD/TT

People in vulnerable areas were also less likely to know a CEO (32 percent compared to 61 percent of the general population, and 28 percent for 18-29-year olds in vulnerable areas compared to 41 percent of the same age group in the general population).

“When young people are more likely to witness criminal acts than running into a politician or CEO, alarms should ring loudly. We need to address these issues if we want to secure the future of our democracy and have a socially sustainable development,” said the Global Village Foundation's director Ahmed Abdirahman.

He said that he hoped more politicians and CEOs would participate in Järvaveckan 2021 – a week-long political festival held in the suburbs, which attracts representatives from Sweden's major parties. 

“We need to understand the importance of role models and diversity. My recommendation to government agencies, politicians and the business sector is to recruit diverse and to engage these communities – it’s not just about trust in agencies, it’s about trust in democracy and has long term consequences. People have to recognise themselves, it's very important to have diversity in a democracy and society,” Abdirahman explained.

“Trust is low in many different government agencies and in the government itself compared to the general population, but one area that sticks out is trust for nonprofit organisations – that's much higher than among the general population.

“Sweden is a country where education is free and so on, but it's not about the beautiful words in the constitution, it's about how we enact those values and whether the opportunities are there in practice,” he explained. “I believe and hope they want to improve relationships, but I want to see it happening.”


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Sweden breaks yearly record for fatal shootings

A man was shot to death in Kristianstad, Skåne, late on Thursday night. He is the 48th person to be shot dead in Sweden this year, meaning that the previous record for most fatal shootings in one year set in 2020 has now been broken.

Sweden breaks yearly record for fatal shootings

“Unfortunately we can’t say more than that he’s in his twenties and we have no current suspects,” duty officer Mikael Lind told TT newswire.

According to police statistics, this most recent deadly shooting means that 48 people have been shot to death in 2022, meaning that Sweden has broken a new record for deadly shootings per year.

Earlier this week, Sweden’s police chief Anders Thornberg said that this number is likely to rise even higher before the end of the year.

“It looks like we’re going to break the record this year,” he told TT on Tuesday. “That means – if it continues at the same pace – around 60 deadly shootings.”

“If it ends up being such a large increase that would be very unusual,” said Manne Gerell, criminiologist at Malmö University.

“We saw a large increase between 2017 and 2018, and we could see the same now, as we’re on such low figures in Sweden. But it’s still worrying that it’s increasing by so much over such a short time period,” he said.

There also seems to be an upwards trend in the number of shootings overall during 2022. 273 shootings had occured by September 1st this year, compared with 344 for the whole of 2021 and 379 for the whole of 2020.

If shootings continue at this rate for the rest of 2022, it is likely that the total number for the year would be higher than 2021 and 2020. There are, however, fewer injuries.

“The majority of shootings cause no injuries, but this year, mortality has increased substantially,” Gerell explained. “There aren’t more people being shot, but when someone is shot, they’re more likely to die.”

Thursday’s shooting took place in Kristianstad, but it’s only partially true that deadly gun violence is becoming more common in smaller cities.

“It’s moved out somewhat to smaller cities, but we’re overexaggerating that effect,” Gerell said. “We’re forgetting that there have been shootings in other small cities in previous years.”

A report from the Crime Prevention Council (Brå) presented last spring showed that Sweden, when compared with 22 different countries in Europe, was the only one with an upwards trend for deadly shootings.

Temporary increases can be seen during some years in a few countries, but there were no countries which showed such a clear increase as Sweden has seen for multiple years in a row, according to Brå.

The Swedish upwards trend for deadly gun violence began in the beginning of the 2000s, but the trend took off in 2013 and has continued to increase since.

Eight of ten deadly shootings take place in criminal environments, the study showed. The Swedish increase has taken place in principle only among the 20-29 year old age group.

When police chief Anders Thornberg was asked how the trend can be broken, he said that new recruitments are one of the most important factors.

“The most important thing is to break recruitment, make sure we can listen encrypted and that we can get to the profits of crime in a better way,” he said.