What are Sweden's new recommendations for face masks?
According to recommendations published on December 30th by the Public Health Agency, people born before 2004 (16 and above) should wear face masks on public transport between 7-9am and 4-6pm on weekdays, if it is not possible to ensure good social distance by booking a separate seat.
This means that those travelling on trains with booked seats are not subject to the recommendation to wear masks, even during the rush hour, but obviously can if they chose to do so.
Where do the recommendations apply?
The recommendation applies everywhere in Sweden, even though public transport is mainly likely to be crowded in the bigger cities.
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Do I need to buy my own face mask if I want to travel on public transport during the rush hours?
The Public Health Agency says that it is the individual's responsibility to bring their own face mask, ideally one marked with the European Union's CE marking, which signifies that they have been assessed to meet high safety, health, and environmental protection requirements.
Why are face masks important?
Face masks can offer some protection to both the wearer and those around them against the transmission of the coronavirus, several scientific studies show. They should not be used as a replacement to other measures, such as working from home if you can, keeping a distance from others, and avoiding public transport and other busy places unless necessary, but they can be used in situations as an additional level of protection.
The coronavirus spreads through both droplet transmission (large particles of the virus, spread for example from sneezing or speaking loudly) and airborne transmission (smaller particles which can float and so remain in the air for some time and may transmit over distances of more than a metre). It's not clear exactly what role each form of transmission plays, with governments and public health authorities in different countries emphasising the role of airborne transmission to different extents.
The Swedish Public Health Agency has said that both droplet and airborne transmission occur with the coronavirus, but that they believe droplet transmission is more common.
Can I make my own face mask?
According to Malin Bengnér, an infectious diseases doctor in Jonköping, you should not try to make a face mask yourself, because it might have no effect if it is not up to standard.
Will bus, train and metro operators supply face masks?
The Public Health Agency is recommending the companies which operate public transport to supply face masks for travellers who have not been able to buy or otherwise obtain one themselves.
But the Swedish Public Transport Association, which represents public transport operators, has said in a statement that it would be too difficult for its members to meet this recommendation and none of the big regional public transport operators plan to hand out face masks tomorrow.
It is possible, however, to obtain free face masks at customer centres in Stockholm, Malmö, Gothenburg and some other big cities.
In Stockholm, SL, the regional traffic operator, is giving out free face masks to those with valid tickets at its customer centres on Stockholm's Sergels Torg square and at Stockholm Central Station.
In Skånetrafiken's customer centres in Malmö, Lund, Helsingborg and Kristianstad, those with a valid ticket will also be able to obtain a free face mask.
The traffic operator Västtrafik plans to give out free face masks at its customer centres in Gothenburg, Borås, Partille, Skövde, Trollhattan and Uddevalla.
How should I wear the face mask?
You should ideally wash your hands before putting it on. You should make sure it's the right way around — normally there is a metal bar which indicates where your nose should be. The inside of the mask is usually white and the outside blue. When wearing the mask, avoid touching the front of the mask. To remove the mask, unhook the elastic from your ears without touching the front of the mask, then dispose of it in a bin. Wash your hands afterwards.
And here's a WHO video on how to wear a standard medical face mask.
What happens if I refuse to wear a mask, or if I've forgotten to buy one?
The recommendation is only a recommendation and neither bus drivers or ticket inspectors on trains will ask those refusing, unable or simply not bothering, to wear a face mask not to travel.
It's possible that fellow travellers will object, however, and it is important to bear in mind that the recommendation is in place to help curb the spread of the coronavirus.
Please let us know your experiences of travelling on public transport in Sweden. Email [email protected]