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SWEDISH CITIZENSHIP

Do children born in Sweden automatically get Swedish citizenship?

A Swedish passport comes with many benefits, and the country allows dual citizenship. But what are the rules for the children of foreign nationals born in Sweden?

Do children born in Sweden automatically get Swedish citizenship?
Not all newborn babies in Sweden are eligible for Swedish citizenship upon birth. Photo: Christine Olsson/TT

Sweden allows dual citizenship, meaning it is possible for foreign residents to gain Swedish citizenship without giving up their old citizenship, if their country of origin also permits dual citizenship. There are a few benefits that only Swedish citizens have, such as an absolute right to live and work in the country and the right to vote in Swedish parliamentary elections.

Some jobs are only open to Swedish citizens as well: you must be a Swedish citizen if you wish to be elected to parliament or join the police or armed forces.

In addition to this, Swedish citizens hold EU citizenship, which gives them the right to free movement in EU member states, making it easier for them to live and work in other parts of the bloc.

Swedish at birth

Unlike other countries such as the US, people born in Sweden do not automatically gain Swedish citizenship.

Swedish citizenship is granted at birth to children who have at least one Swedish parent, regardless of whether the child is born in Sweden or not. This also applies to the children of deceased Swede. If a child’s deceased parent was a Swedish citizen when they died, the child is also entitled to Swedish citizenship.

Children under the age of 12 who are adopted by a Swedish citizen automatically gain Swedish citizenship if they fulfill the following criteria:

  • the official adoption decision was made in Sweden or another Nordic country
  • the child was adopted through a foreign adoption decision approved by the Family Law and Parental Support Authority (MFoF)
  • the adoption is legally valid in Sweden

This applies to adoptions occurring after June 30th, 1992.

Children over the age of 12 at the time of adoption must apply for Swedish citizenship.

Does a child born to foreigners need a residence permit?

A child of foreign nationals who is born in Sweden will not automatically gain Swedish citizenship upon birth. Depending on their parents’ citizenship, they may need to apply for a residence permit in order to live in Sweden legally.

Children with EU citizenship who have at least one parent with EU right of residence in Sweden (uppehållsrätt) do not need a residence permit to live in Sweden, as they inherit their parent’s right of residence on birth.

A child born in Sweden to non-EU parents will need a residence permit to live in Sweden. The Migration Agency will contact the parents once a non-Swedish child is born in Sweden with information on how to apply for a residence permit on the child’s behalf.

Once granted, the child’s residence permit will be valid for no more than two years, and parents will have to reapply once it runs out.

In order to be granted a temporary residence permit, applicants must have a valid passport, meaning that parents without EU citizenship should apply for a passport on their child’s behalf as soon as possible after the child is born. You don’t need to wait to apply for a residence permit though. The application can still be submitted before the child has a valid passport.

When can my child gain Swedish citizenship?

A child can gain Swedish citizenship after they have had the right of residence, a residence card, or a permanent residence permit in Sweden and once they have lived in Sweden for at least three years (two, if the child is stateless).

Both the child’s guardians (or one guardian, if the child only has one) must apply on their behalf, and the child must sign the application if they are over the age of 12.

Current citizenship application fees for children are 175kr (2022).

Member comments

  1. Apply for the resident permit as soon as you can. Until you do, you won’t get child support and after some time your parental leave benefit will also stop if you have not applied for the permit. As mentioned in the article, a valid passport is not a requirement to apply for a permit, you can do both in parallel.

  2. I’m surprised the Local, a left-wing rag, allows this comment to stand. Suprise suprise.

    Again – all those immigrating to Sweden and struggling with it – should consider Canada. Doors are wide open.

  3. Well well. What do we have here.
    I’m surprised The Local, a left-wing rag at best, would allow such comments to stand.

    And all I’ve ever done is encourage immigrants to consider Canada as another and better option. Especially those struggling to find a permanent place after their Ph.D (which is all but certainly useless).

    Expect to be deleted soon.

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For members

SWEDISH CITIZENSHIP

How do Sweden’s citizenship rules compare to Denmark and Norway?

As Sweden considers tightening its rules for both citizenship and permanent residency, we take a look at how Sweden's citizenship requirements compare to other Scandinavian countries.

How do Sweden's citizenship rules compare to Denmark and Norway?

Gaining citizenship of one Nordic country grants you rights in the others, such as making it easier to move there, work there, and even become a citizen. So, where is it easiest to become a citizen, and where will you be waiting the longest?

Photo: Erik Johansen/NTB scanpix/TT

Sweden

Length of stay: 2-5 years

EU and non EU citizens can apply for Swedish citizenship after living in Sweden for five continuous years with right of residence. 

In some cases, this period can be even shorter.

Nordic citizens who have lived in Sweden for at least five years can become Swedish citizens through notification. This involves filling out a form and sending it to the local country administrative board, with a fee of 475 kronor.

The alternative is to submit an application for citizenship to the Migration Agency, which Nordic citizens can do after living in Sweden for two years. No other requirements below are needed for Nordic citizens.

EU and non-EU citizens who have lived with a Swedish citizen for at least two years can apply for citizenship earlier, after three continuous years in Sweden. However applicants will be asked to show that they have adapted well to Swedish life. This could be shown through learning the language, proving you can support yourself, or through the length of your marriage.

The requirement for continuous residency in Sweden means that if you spend more than six weeks abroad in any given year, it will extend the period of time until you can apply for citizenship.

For non-EU citizens, the process for getting citizenship is just the same as for EU citizens, except there is an additional requirement for a permanent residence permit. Permanent residency for non EU citizens is usually granted after four years of living in Sweden.

Other requirements: No outstanding debts or recent crimes

In addition to length of stay, EU and non EU citizens must have “conducted themselves well in Sweden”, and the Migration Agency will request information on whether you have debts or have committed crimes in the country.

An application can be rejected if a person has unpaid taxes, fines, or other charges. Debts to private companies passed on to the Swedish Enforcement Authority could also impact the application, even if they are paid, as two years must pass after payment to prove you’re debt-free. If you’ve committed a crime, there’s also a qualifying period before citizenship can be granted which depends on the sentence. 

An automated test (in Swedish) can be filled in here to see if you meet those requirements. 

Language and citizenship test: May soon be required

While Swedish language skills and knowledge of Swedish society are not currently a requirement for citizenship, this could change in the future. In January 2021, the Swedish Ministry of Justice and Migration put forward proposals to introduce an A2 language exam for would-be Swedes, with exceptions for vulnerable individuals who have made a reasonable effort to learn the language. There are also proposals for a knowledge test about Swedish society.

These proposals will be subject to a long political process before they can be put into law, so at present the requirements are proof of identity, duration of residency in Sweden, and no record of serious criminal offences or debts.

Processing time and fees

The Migration Agency says applicants should expect an average of 39 months between submitting their application and becoming Swedish. Readers of The Local have reported the process taking anywhere between a couple of weeks to over three years. The application costs 1,500 SEK (~€150).

Photo: Gorm Kallestad/NTB scanpix/TT

Norway

Length of stay: 6-8 years

EU and non EU citizens can apply for Norwegian citizenship after living in Norway for eight years out of the past eleven years and if they have held residence permits that were each valid for at least one year during that time.

A new rule, which came into effect in January 2022, means that if you have sufficient income, you can apply after six years rather than eight. Currently sufficient income is 319,997 kroner (~€30,520), but this can change annually.

Those with Norwegian spouses, registered partners, or cohabitants can apply after living in Norway for three of the last ten years. 

Nordic citizens over the age of 12 can apply for Norwegian citizenship after two years living in Norway and do not need to fulfil any further requirements below.

Language test

EU and non EU citizens have to pass an oral Norwegian language test at either A2 or B1 level. A2 refers to an elementary level of Norwegian, and B1 is considered semi-fluent. 

The change to the language requirement from A2 to B1 will apply from autumn 2022 at the earliest, according to the UDI

Citizenship test

Applicants must pass a citizenship test (statsborgerprøve), or a social studies test if aged between 18 and 67. The tests must be taken in Norwegian, either Bokmål or Nynorsk.

For the citizenship test, applicants need to answer at least 24 of 36 multiple choice questions correctly to pass. Topics included in the test are history, geography, democracy, welfare, education, health and working life in Norway.

Other requirements

After filling in an online application, applicants have to deliver a series of documents in person, including birth certificates, marriage certificates (if applicable), a full list of entries into and departures from Norway, at least seven years of tax returns, and a police report certifying “good conduct”.

Processing time and fees

It costs 6,500 kroner to apply if you are over 18. However, the fee is cheaper or completely waived if you are a Nordic citizen, previously held Norwegian citizenship, or are under 18 years of age. 

Applications take around 16 months to process but this can vary.

READ MORE: EXPLAINED: How to apply for Norwegian citizenship

Photo: Fredrik Hagen/NTB scanpix/TT

Denmark

Length of stay: 9 years

Normally, you must have lived in Denmark for nine consecutive years (without living elsewhere for more than three months) in order to qualify for Danish citizenship.

This period is reduced in some cases: for refugees it becomes eight years, citizens of Nordic countries need a two-year stay and people married to Danes qualify after 6-8 years, depending on the length of the marriage.

Other exceptions are made for those who have taken a significant portion of their education in Denmark, who may qualify after five years. If you moved to Denmark before your 15th birthday, you can become nationalised after you turn 18.

EU and non EU citizens must have a permit for permanent residency in Denmark for a minimum of two years before applying for citizenship.

Language test

Applicants must have passed the national Prøve i Dansk 3 language test, the final exam in the national Danish language school system. This involves a reading, writing, speaking and listening test which equates to B2 Danish.

There are certain exemptions from the language requirements. Residents of Greenland and the Faroe Islands, as well as Swedish and Norwegian speakers, do not need to document Danish proficiency. Dispensation can be given for applicants with certain types of illnesses and disabilities, and different rules apply to children.

Citizenship test

A condition of getting Danish citizenship is to demonstrate knowledge of Danish society, culture and history, by having passed a citizenship test (indfødsretsprøve).

In April 2021, the existing citizenship test, consisting of 40 multiple choice questions, was supplemented with five extra questions about “Danish values” such as equality, freedom of speech and the relation between legislation and religion. 

The pass mark is 36/45 and at least four of the five Danish values questions must be answered correctly. 

Children under 12, Swedish and Norwegian citizens, and people from the Danish minority in German region Schleswig-Holstein do not need to take the citizenship test.

Other requirements

  • Sign a declaration pledging allegiance and loyalty to Denmark and Danish society and promising to abide by its laws.
  • Be free of debt to the public sector and be financially self-sufficient.
  • Have no criminal convictions.
  • Hold a full-time job or been self-employed for three and a half of the last four years. 
  • Attend a ceremony, declare you will uphold Denmark’s laws, values and principles and shake hands with an official.

You also need to submit paperwork to prove your identity, current nationality, residency and economic activity in Denmark.

Processing time and fees

At the end of 2021, the processing time for applications was approximately 14 months, according to the immigration ministry. The fee is 4,000 Danish kroner (~€537).

After this time, you receive a letter notifying you that you can expect to be accepted for citizenship at the next round of parliamentary procedure (which happens twice yearly), provided you still fulfil the requirements at that time.

Once the new law making you a citizen comes into force, you will be sent a declaration that you have been accepted for citizenship with one final condition: you attend a ceremony, declare that you will uphold Denmark’s laws, values and principles, shake hands with an official and become a citizen.

Roundup

Even if Sweden decides to include a language and citizenship test in their application process, the country will still remain the easiest and cheapest in Scandinavia in which to become a citizen, although there’s a downside – it also has the longest processing time for citizenship applications.

Here’s the roundup.

Swedish citizenship

Application Fee: ~€150 (1,500 Swedish kronor) 

Length of time living in country: 3-5 years 

Language level needed: None, but this may change

Citizenship test: None, but this may change

Other requirements: No record of serious criminal offences or debts

Dual nationality allowed: Yes

Processing time: Around 39 months

Norwegian Citizenship 

Application Fee: ~€250 (2,500 Norwegian kroner)

Length of time living in country: 6-8 of the past 11 years

Language level needed: A2 Norwegian, soon to change to the more difficult B1 Norwegian

Citizenship test: Yes

Other requirements: A full list of entries into and departures from Norway, at least seven years of tax returns, and a police report certifying “good conduct”.

Dual nationality allowed: Yes thanks to a law change in 2020 

Processing time: Around 16 months

Danish citizenship

Application Fee: ~€537 (4,000 Danish kroner)

Length of time living in country: 9 years

Language level needed: B2 Danish

Citizenship test: Yes

Other requirements: No record of serious criminal offences or debts and be financially self-sufficient; sign a declaration pledging allegiance and loyalty to Denmark and its laws; hold a full-time job or been self-employed for three and a half of the last four years; attend a ceremony.

Dual nationality allowed: Yes 

Processing time: 14 months – 2 years

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