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Have US Space Weapons Changed Turkey's Outlook?

Did Izmit & Lake Van Earthquakes Make It Happen?

*Guest*
post 14.Jun.2012, 08:54 AM
Post #1


Just look at how Turkey's political outlook has changed in little more than a decade - what seem to have been triggered by the earthquakes in Izmit in August 1999, and just last September at Lake Van.

The country, like Yugoslavia, has gone from being an imperial power, dominated by its military and hoping to go its own way, into a quite cooperative one, willing to support US interests in the area, thanks to the surprise disasters, apparently caused by Pentagon Keyhole laser satellites shaking down their qanat systems so much that the quakes occurred.

In the process, the military-minded government of Bulent Ecevic was replaced by a Moslem one, led by PM Erdogan.

As a result, instead of Turkey pursuing its independent Kurds, it has become a base for getting rid of Syria's Assad. Instead of its trying to isolate Israel because of its treatment of the Palestinians, it has opened the door for the flow of Azerbaizani oil through its territory. Instead of Washington increasing its atttacks because of Turkey's helping Moscow, it has stopped them because of its providing a base for the Sunni opposition to make its attack on the Syrian government.

And all with just some laser beams from the satellites passing overhead, and the loss of several tens of thousand Turks - what no wars could have so cheaply achieved.
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Jamtjim
post 14.Jun.2012, 09:17 AM
Post #2
Joined: 11.Sep.2006

QUOTE
...thanks to the surprise disasters, apparently caused by Pentagon Keyhole laser satellites shaking down their qanat systems so much that the quakes occurred.

No, not apparently Trowbridge. There is absolutely now evidence of space laser weapons US or otherwise. This is utter fabricated garbage from TL's greatest purveyor of fabricated nonsense.

I have already dealt in other posts with the implausibility of these claims. Lasers do not make effective long range weapons as the beam is all to easily dispersed by the atmosphere through which they pass. In order to produce even the slightest significant effect over ranges of just a few kilometres, a laser needs vast sources of power; something which is currently impossible to provide to a satellite mounted weapon. So here this silly claim fails on two distinct counts just by looking at the science (or lack of it) behind it.

Thirdly there is absolutely no established mechanism as to how a laser would actually cause an earthquake in the first place. As the vast majority of earthquakes happen many kilometres beneath the surface of the Earth, the laser would not only have to penetrate many miles of rock, but it would also have to do this over an area large enough to cause tectonic plate shift and over a short enough time not to be noticed.

And on that point, where are all the witness statements from those who saw a laser beam streaming down through the clouds? There aren't any and you know why? Because this fairy tale is just made up, disingenuous fiction from a bunch of disgruntled, mind-numbingly credulous and ill-informed conspiracy loons... None of this actually happened, the answer to your silly question is:

"No, they didn't."

So, space lasers are busted on at least four points Trow, but might I say that I am rather surprised that you brought this nonsense up again. After all wasn't it when making facile predictions on this very subject when you made your subsequently welched on losing bet to Jimmy? That's right it was...

Now how about you pay him the money and drop your bullshit...
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johnjohn
post 14.Jun.2012, 09:40 AM
Post #3
Joined: 10.Dec.2010

Don't forget about the lunar based electron de-ionizer or LUBED. The consequences of which are profound.
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*Guest*
post 14.Jun.2012, 09:40 AM
Post #4


Just the expected disinformation from our chief resident troll.

You have never explained away these earthquakes which occur only a few kilometers under the earth's surface where qanats exist, are repeatedly shaken by the beams from a Keyhole satellite passing over head hitting them, the beams which are sent down at night and when the sky is clear so that no one who survives the quake can see it, are politically motivated, not just convenient coincidents etc. - preferring to write about a totally different situation where the laser satellite is expected to shoot down a missile when it is being launched - a much more difficult target.

The use of laser satellites to cause earthquakes is what former SoD Robert Gates had in mind when he complimented Danny Stillman for his surprise use of them to cause earthquakes not only in Turkey but also Iran, Pakistan, and China thus: "(Stillman's) ability to adapt latest adances in science to solve unmanageable problems and to analyze foreign technologies make him an invaluable asset to the intelligence Community." (back of dust cover to The Nuclear Express by Thomas C. Reed and Stillman)

Instead of your trying to collect a non-existent bet with poor Jimmy, why not try to deal with the real world and its problems?
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Snoopy!
post 14.Jun.2012, 09:53 AM
Post #5
Location: Skåne
Joined: 14.Aug.2006

QUOTE (Jamtjim @ 14.Jun.2012, 10:17 AM) *
but might I say that I am rather surprised that you brought this nonsense up again. . Now how about you pay him the money and drop your bullshit...

Exactly on both counts rolleyes.gif

Attached Image

QUOTE
why not try to deal with the real world and its problems?

ohhhh the irony in that comment Trow,do you ever listen to yourself before babbling your effluence?
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Jamtjim
post 14.Jun.2012, 10:02 AM
Post #6
Joined: 11.Sep.2006

QUOTE
Just th expected disinformation from our chief resident troll.

If a troll is someone who repeatedly shows your assertions to be vacuous crap, then a troll I am.

QUOTE
You have never explained away these earthquakes which occur only a few kilometers under the earth's surface where qanats exist, are repeatedly shaken by the beams from a Keyhole satellite passing over head hitting them, the beams which are sent down at night and when the sky is clear so that no one who survives the quake can see it, are politically motivated, not just convenient coincidents etc. - preferring to write about a totally different situation where the laser satellite is expected to shoot down a missile when it is being launched - a much more difficult target.

Yes I have. Any space based laser would not have sufficient energy, having travelled through a hundred or so kilometres of atmosphere, to have little if any significant effect on the surface of the earth whatsoever let alone be able to bore through it to any degree, then deliver enough energy to cause any type of "shake" at all. This is physically impossible given current technology and power sources. The fact that the sky is "clear" makes no difference to this as the air itself is enough to diffuse any beam of light.

As for nobody seeing it, do you think that people lose their powers of vision at night? There would almost certainly be some people awake at this time. Further more any high energy laser beam would ionise the air that it passes through, causing it to expand and cause an extremely loud noise just like thunder. In fact it is the precisely the ionisation of the air caused by lightning which caused the clap of thunder associated with it. So do you think people become deaf at night as well?? This is silly, silly reasoning.

Further more, there is a huge disparity between the energy needed to shoot down a missile over a distance of a few kilometres and what is needed to cause an earthquake form space. The reason that this claim is so ridiculous is that even on Earth we lack the ability to deliver sufficient energy in a short enough time in the order of magnitude required to trigger an earthquake without the use of a nuclear explosion. Now you expect us to believe that the Americans are able to do this remotely and by laser. No, this whole thing is made up bollocks.

So once again, you lack of scientific understanding lets you down Trow as well as the evidential gaps in your made-up claim. Just like your credibility, this claim is well and truly busted!

QUOTE
Instead of your trying to collect a non-existent bet with poor Jimmy, why not try to deal with the real world and its problems?

Sorry Trow. In the "real world" you made a bet with Jimmy as we can all see by looking at the post where you made it. In the "real world" you lost this bet as the events you claimed in your silly bet never happened. Then in the "real world" you have done everything yo can to get out of it. In the "real world" this is often called welching.

Now, in the "real world" you have a debt and an obligation to pay up! However in the "real world" I doubt you ever will... cheats never do!
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*Guest*
post 14.Jun.2012, 10:10 AM
Post #7


Oh, and here is another fellow troll, Snoopy, the poor guy who has not moved beyond childish fantasy fun when it comes to what the vile US government is doing to us all.

And I don't owe Uncle Sam - nor Jimmy for that matter - a penny, as he just returned $603 in overpaid taxes for 2011.
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*Guest*
post 14.Jun.2012, 10:42 AM
Post #8


Your claims about the weakness of laser satellites are falsefied by the hurried attempt by NASA to put in space one which would destroy in one shot if the Soviets started to launch a first ICBM strike in response to the surprise assassination of Olof Palme. The NRO Keyhole satellite was fortunately too heavy for the Challenger Space Shuttle, so it never got a chance to perform its assigned duties, and it was fortunately good for us too, as if the shooting had started, thanks to the loonies in Washington, we'd all be dead.

And the adapted use that Stillman later tried with them resulted in many passby beams until the targeted qanats collapsed.

And you can only see laser beams, like any light, if it is aimed right at you or it passes through debris in the air.

That's why most of these attacks occurred at night - what NRO recklessly advertised on its shoulder patch until it was changed - apparently thanks to my claims: "We Own The Night".

Is there a genetic fault in your makeup which makes you always seek anything but the truth or are you another Breivik type who blames it all on environmental factors?
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The Nine
post 14.Jun.2012, 10:58 AM
Post #9
Joined: 10.Aug.2006

Don't fall for his tricks. THF has dug this up again because he thinks that it somehow adds credence to his other rubbish about the laser attack on Iran.As everyone knows, Trow often tries to create support for his nonsense by posting links to his own posts on other sites. This is simply because there is not other independent insight to refer to.

As with this post, he is trying to add weight and credence to his earlier posts about Iran, by manufacturing associated stuff. The truth is that everything written about laser attacks starts and ends with THF.
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Jamtjim
post 14.Jun.2012, 11:10 AM
Post #10
Joined: 11.Sep.2006

QUOTE
Your claims about the weakness of laser satellites are falsefied by the hurried attempt by NASA to put in space one which would destroy in one shot if the Soviets started to launch a first ICBM strike in response to the surprise assassination of Olof Palme.

No they are not. You are claiming a laser satellite capable of producing enough energy to not only to bore through several if not tens of kilometres of rock but to remain effective after being defused by travelling through tens of kilometres of atmosphere. This is simply not realistic, even the most powerful lasers ever produced lack this capacity, and is thereby shown to be incorrect.

The energy needed to shoot down a missile is tens of orders of magnitude less than this and is plausible even if not actually realised. Tests with even the most powerful military lasers in the order of 100 kW have been largely unsuccessful, due partly in difficulties in targeting, but also the unavoidable reduction in power as the laser travels through the atmosphere.

QUOTE
And you can only see laser beams, like any light, if it is aimed right at you or it passes through debris in the air.

You will see any laser light which has been deflected from it's path by any molecules in the air be they from debris, water or even the air itself. The stronger the bean, the more photons are deflected making it easier to see. Because of this, laser light is actually more easily detected in the dark, so once again your claim makes no sense.

QUOTE
That's why most of these attacks occurred at night - what NRO recklessly advertised on its shoulder patch until it was changed - apparently thanks to my claims: "We Own The Night".

The NRO has in all probability never even heard of you, let alone taken your silly claims seriously enough to change anything. A slogan referring to reconnaissance activities saying "We own the night" refers to the clandestine nature of reconnaissance and not to non-existent space lasers.

QUOTE
Is there a genetic fault in your makeup which makes you always seek anything but the truth or are you another Breivik type who blames it all on environmental factors?

On the contrary, it is my wish to believe as many true things as possible whilst disbelieve as many false things which lead me to critically analyse claims such as the facile ones you make with such regularity. With virtually every claim you make you display none of this reasoning, just a willingness to credulously believe anything which fits into your preconceived conspiracy delusion or which you claim to believe having fabricated it yourself.

You see Trow, when anyone with any actual knowledge on the subject you ignorantly and amateurishly drone on about look at your assertions they expose them for the nonsense that they are.

Look at this claim, I have a basis in physics and engineering and through that I can demonstrate why this claim does not fit with physics of reality. The Nine who was ex-military has destroyed your claims about the IRA and Skogsbo, your silly hypotheses regarding the Chinook crash. We all know vastly more about these subject than you do and because of this, your assertions are shown to be no more than the vacuous, worthless ramblings of a delusional crackpot.

You lose once again Trow; yet another of your facile hypothesis lies in tatters this time on the grounds that you don't really understand the scientific impossibility of what you claim.

Now pay Jimmy his winnings, be a good loser...
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*Guest*
post 14.Jun.2012, 11:23 AM
Post #11


To show that jamtjim doesn't know the first thing about what he is writing, here is what a qanat is - not to be mistaken, as google attempts by guiding one to Qantas Airlines:

article by Jona Lendering ©
Qanat

A view inside a qanat Qanat: type of underground irrigation canal between an aquifer on the piedmont to a garden on an arid plain. The word is Arabic, but the system is best known from Iran.
To make a qanat, one needs a source of water, which may be a real well, but can also be an underground reservoir (e.g., a cave with a lake) or a water-bearing geological layer, which can be recognized as a damp area in an otherwise arid region. When one has identified this source, a tunnel is cut to the farm or village that needs the water.

A qanat near Anšan, seen from the air (Google Earth)
Shafts are added for three reasons: as air supply, to remove sand and dirt, and to prevent the tunnels from becoming dangerously long. The shafts are not very far apart, and as a result, a qanat seen from the air gives the impression of a long, straight line of holes in the ground - as if the land has been subjected to a bombing run.
Typically, the qanat becomes a ditch near its destination; in other words, the water is brought to the surface by leading it out of the slope. In fact, one creates an artificial artesian well and an oasis.

The exit of a qanat As the ceramics of the farms at the exit of a qanat offer an indication of its age, it is possible to date the first qanats to the late second millennium B.C.E.; they were constructed in the country that was once known as Maka and is now called Oman.
In the Late Iron Age, the irrigation technique spread to Iran; in the sixth century, many qanats were dug in the area east of the Zagros mountains, and there is something to be said for the theory that the rise of Persis (under Cyrus the Great) and the fall of Media as the political center of Iran had something to do with the ability of the Persians to overcome a climatic change - the Persians, living in an arid zone, had learned to build qanats, and the inhabitants of Media (where rain-fed dryland cropping is possible) had not. It is perhaps no coincidence that the Greek researcher Herodotus of Halicarnassus in his description of the rise of Persia mentions agricultural activities (Histories 1.126) and that the Achaemenid kings often presented themselves as gardener (roi-jardinier).

In the Persian Empire qanats appear to have spread along the Silk road to Parthia, Aria, Bactria, and Sogdia. Later, the technique became also known in Xinjiang. In the Roman age, we see the first qanats in Syria and Egypt, and the Muslim conquerors spread their use along the arid zone south of the Mediterranean. Today, qanats can be found as far west as Morocco and Andalusia, and even the Sicilian capital Palermo boasts a medieval qanat.

Being about 1½ meter high and ¾ meter wide, qanats are rather narrow, but they can reach depths of 30 meters (the record seems to be 60) and can cover distances of many kilometers (the longest Iranian qanat is said to be 70 kilometers long.) The trick is to make the angle of the qanat not too steep, because in that case, the water will grind itself down into the bottom and create pools that will make the qanat collapse; on the other hand, if the angle is not steep enough, the water will be tainted. Everything depends, therefore, on the correct angle. The diggers or muqannis were brilliant surveyors.

A qanat, once built, can exist for a long time, but agriculture with qanats is extremely labor-intensive. Not only is it difficult to dig an underground canal, but it also needs a visit every spring to clean it out. Usually, this work is left to boys, whose fathers are standing near the shaft and pull up buckets and can come to their children's rescue when the gallery collapses.

During the White Revolution of the late shah, Iran's great estates were broken up and the land was given to those who actually worked it. An unintended result was that it was no longer clear who was responsible for the maintenance of the qanats, and many fell into disrepair. At the same time, several qanats were replaced by underground canals made of concrete, which needed less maintenance and were cheaper. This process has accelerated during the last quarter of a century, but at least 20,000 qanats are still in use, and even those that no longer carry water are still useful - if only as traps for little animals.

In the Maghreb, qanats are called foggara.

home : index : ancient Persia
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Jamtjim
post 14.Jun.2012, 11:36 AM
Post #12
Joined: 11.Sep.2006

QUOTE
To show that jamtjim doesn't know the first thing about what he is writing, here is what a qanat is - not to be mistaken, as google attempts by guiding one to Qantas Airlines:

Right, so a definition of a qanat is supposed to invalidate my destruction of your silly hypothesis is it Trow.

Let me briefly go through why your space laser assertions is so totally busted and frankly rather embarrassing to anyone who believes in them.

1. No laser has ever been produced which could produce the effects you claim ie. enough to cause an earthquake in any way.

2. Even if they had, the energy source they would need would be too big and weighty to be transported into space. Collecting energy from the sun is also out as the solar collector needed would be so large as to make it impractical.

3. Even then, diffusion through the Earth's atmosphere would reduce the effect so much as to make it worthless.

4. Any space laser would be impossible to use covertly due to the potential give away visually due to diffused light from the beam, and also by the associated noise such a weapon would create. No witnesses to my knowledge have ever associated a large explosion or clap of thunder before these earthquakes.

So none of these have anything to do with qanats, quantas or anything else. Trows post is simply no more than disingenuous smoke and mirrors to detract from the fact that he has, as per usual, been busted...

... and that he still hasn't paid his losing bet to Jimmy.
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Jamtjim
post 14.Jun.2012, 11:42 AM
Post #13
Joined: 11.Sep.2006

Actually, on a side note I wonder what it is that is wrong with Trowbridge which makes him make such silly and obviously incorrect claims. Is it just that he craves attention, any attention, even if it is negative? I mean, even he must be able to see the flaws in his hypotheses, so why does he still produce them knowing that they will immediately be picked apart and destroyed? He makes flawed an baseless assertions with seemingly no knowledge of the subject and then acts all indignant when people who do, show him up. What is in all this for him?

Answers on a postcard...
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*Guest*
post 14.Jun.2012, 11:54 AM
Post #14


Sure, provide your address, and I shall give you a wake-up call about me that you won't soon forget.

For posters who want the short answer, I write these articles to show the continuing fallout from the covert competition of the 20th century's Cold War, and how it is resuming now.

For a description of what the Keyhole satellite wrought in Bam in 2003, read this article, but it is better still when you see all the collapsed qanats - what the Iranian government is not about to suggest for fear that its people object seriously about its failure to protect them from the American rambos:

Engineering Geology and Geotechnical Aspects of Bam Earthquake

(Preliminary Report)

Kambod Amini Hosseini
Mohammad Reza Mahdavifar
Mohammad Keshavarz Bakhshayesh
Masomeh Rakhshandeh

10/01/2004

International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology

1- Introduction

Bam earthquake occurred on 26th of December 2003, at 07:56:56 GMT (05:26:26 local time) near the city of Bam that is located at southeast of Iran (Eshghi and Zare, 2003). The coordination of the epicenter of this earthquake have been determined by IIEES (IIEES, 2003) at 29.01N and 58.26E in 10km SW of Bam town that is close to the coordination mentioned by USGS (28.99N, 58.29 E (USGS, 2003)), but based on the surface evidences reported by Zare (Eshghi and Zare, 2003), the epicenter is located under the city of Bam.
The Moment Magnitude of 6.5 for this earthquake (Mw) have been measured based on the preliminary evaluations and the focal depth is estimated to be 8km based on S-P evaluation on the records obtained from the main shock (Eshghi and Zare, 2003). The macro-seismic intensity of the earthquake is estimated to be I0=IX according to the EMS98 scale. The attenuation of the strong motion seems to be considerable as the surface evidences and damages decrease sharply at the direction perpendicular to the Bam fault (Figure 1).
Although the focal mechanism of Bam earthquake was reported to be strike slip having a small vertical component (USGS, 2003), but the strong motions recorded at the Bam station shows a considerable vertical component. The maximum PGA for the horizontal components are 0.7 and 0.8g, and 1.01g for the vertical component (Corrected values; BHRC, 2003). Bam earthquake has been accompanied by some geotechnical phenomena such as landslide, liquefaction and land subsidence. In this preliminary report, some of these geological and geotechnical aspects will be introduced. In addition a summery about the geological and geographical setting of the area will be described. It should be considered that further information about the geotechnical aspects of this earthquake will be presented later after accomplishment of the second phase of the study.

Figure 1. Intensity map of the area (Eshghi and Zare, 2003)

2- Geographical Situation

The city of Bam is located southeast of Kerman. The area of the city is about 5400 Hectares having a smooth topography and morphology. The altitude of the city is approximately 1050 meter above sea level. The main topographical feature of the city is the volcanic hills located at the north and south west of Bam. Climatologically the area has dry weather and the total amount of annual rainfall is not considerable specially during the recent years. There is one seasonal river that is nearly dry most of the year called Posht-e-Rood. It passes through the Bam city.
Due to small amount of rainfall and surface water, the main source to supply drinking and agricultural water for Bam and its vicinity are underground resources. Underground water extracted mainly by using deep wells and Qanats (underground irrigation tunnels). Lots of the Qanats have been excavated at the area during the past decades. Before Bam earthquake there were about 126 active Qanats at the area to supply 50% of the required water for the city. The rest of the required water supplied with deep wells.

3- Geological Setting

A simplified geological map of the area is presented at the figure 2, based on the 1:250,000 geological map prepared by GSI (Geological Survey of Iran).
Five different lithologies can be observed in the main geological formations of the area including: recent Quaternary alluvium, late Quaternary sandstones and siltstones, Paleogene sedimentary rocks, Eocene volcanic rocks, and intrusive igneous rocks (Granodiorite). Quaternary fine sands and silts form the alluvium around the Bam town and its vicinity. These sediments are yellow to brown sand and silt (Qm1), coarse grain brown gravel deposits of flooded plains (Qm2), coarse grain gravel of alluvial fans (Qf2) and coarse grain deposits of the rivers, respectively. Qm2 deposits covered nearly most of the Bam and Baravat areas. The thickness of these sediments having low to medium compaction is about 50 meters. The effects of deep erosion can be observed in these sediments (figures 3 – 5).
Bam fault is the main tectonic feature at the area that overlaid the old Quaternary sediments on younger sedimentary layers at east of Bam. As a result, the old Quaternary sediments formed a hilly morphology that has been cut by some drainage systems at the area and made several deep channels prone to landslide.

4- Geotechnical phenomena related to Bam Earthquake

4-1- Landslides

As shown in figure 2, except granodioritic layers, the rest of the lithologies are sensitive to landslide; but because of the low dip of the exist slopes, the landslide prone zone is limited to the mountains and channels banks (figure 6). Figure 6 prepared by overlaying of geology and slope map of the area.
In aerial photos that have been taken 2 days after the earthquake (NCC, 2003), extensive fall zones, earth block slides and earth slides can be identified at the natural channels of east and southeast of Bam (figures 7-12).

Figure 2. The simplified geologic map of the area

Figure 3. Sandy and silty sediments (Qm2) (west of Baravat)

Figure 4. Deep erosion in Qm2 alluvium (west of Bam)

Figure 5. Alluvial fan (Qf2) (South of Bam)

Figure 13 presents the areas which landslide (mostly falls) occurred during the earthquake. Two areas are shown in the figure:

The area with small numbers of falls and slides (between 10-50/Km2)

The area with large numbers of falls and slides (more than 150 / Km2)

This figure shows that landslide numbers is large at the channels banks in the east and south east of Bam. There is also a limited area with considerable number of falls at the northwest of Bam.
The reasons for more instability of the channels banks compared to hilly areas, could be explained as follows:

As a result of Bam fault movement, the old Quaternary sediments formed a hilly morphology that has been cut by drainage system during the time. Most of these deep channels are formed in the weak formations (sensitive and very weak sandstones and siltstones).

Figure 6. Geotechnical hazard map of Bam area

Figure 7. Some of landslides located using one of the aerial photo

Figure 8. Some earth falls due to Bam Earthquake (east of Bam)

Figure 9. Some earth falls due to Bam earthquake (East of Bam)

Figure 10. Some earth falls due to Bam earthquake (Southeast of Bam)

Figure 11. A block earth slide due to earthquake (North of Rahmani Village)

Figure 12. A block earth slide due to earthquake (North of Rahmani Village)

Figure 13. Landslide map of Bam area

As a result of high energy release of Bam earthquake at Bam city and its vicinity and the very high vertical component of the earthquake (based on BHRC records, 2003) the stability of the natural channels have been reduced considerably and many falls and slides occurred at the area. In addition several tensional crack and separation of the blocks with the main body can be observed at the area.
Up to now, There is no confirmed reason for explaining the large number of falls and slides at the NW of Bam (Figure 13) and the intensity map presented by Eshghi and Zare (2003) can not explain the phenomenon correctly. This problem is now under investigation and the results will be presented in the next reports.
By a statistical estimation, the number of different types of landslide triggered by Bam earthquake can be classified as follows:

Fall: 6000 cases
Earth block slide: 55 cases
Earth slide: 15 cases

4-2- Liquefaction

The liquefaction potential of Bam area can be evaluated using Geological data, ground water level and soil condition. Although the soil condition at the most parts of Bam city and its vicinity shows high percentages of fine grain sediments (sand and silt) but due to low level of ground water, the risk of liquefaction is not considerable at the most parts of the city. In addition there is no report indicating the damages due to liquefaction.
The preliminary investigations also confirmed that there is no evidence of liquefaction at south and south west of the region due to low level of ground water.
Of course at the north and north-east of Bam near the Posht-e-Rood River, Esfikan and Chehel Tokhm; some evidences of liquefaction can be observed at the aerial photos taken 2 days after the earthquake. At these parts the ground water level is higher and the sediments are prone to liquefaction. Complementary investigation at these areas is now in progress that the results will be presented in the next reports.

4-3- The effects of earthquakes on Qanats of Bam

As mentioned before one of the main sources of drinking and agricultural water at Bam area is underground irrigation systems called Qanats. Before the earthquake 50% of the required water of the area have been supplied with 126 active Qanats. Most of these Qanats can be observed in the areal photos (figures 14 –16). In addition there are several trends of old Qanats related to the past decades or centuries that their locations are unknown now. Of course most of these old Qanats are now dry and partially collapsed. Most of the Qanats of the area have been damaged due to Bam Earthquake. In some cases the collapse of some of theses Qanats caused severe damages to the building and lifelines. At this part the effects of Bam Earthquake on Qanat systems exists at the area will be presented breifly.

4-3-1- The behavior of Qanats during Iran’s historical earthquakes

Earthquake may damage or even destroy the tunnels and access wells of new and old Qanats. Due to partial or complete collapse of the Qanats tunnels, water flow can be affected in different levels and land subsidence in form of sinkholes can be occurred on the ground surface.
Damage to the Qanats have been reported in several seismic events in Iran that a summery of them is presented at table 1. It can be observed that most of the strong earthquake of Iran that occurred at the dry regions caused different levels of damages on the Qanats.

4-3-2- The behavior of Qanats during Bam Earthquake

Bam Earthquake has considerable effects on a lot of Qanats that excavated at the Bam area and its vicinity. Based on the preliminary evaluations, about 40 percents of these Qanats have been collapsed or experienced severe damages due to the earthquake. In some cases the collapse of the Qanats stopped the water flow completely.
The Qanat network of the area can be observed in aerial photos. Some of these trends have been marked at the figures 14 to 16. Figures 17 and 18 show some of the access wells of Qanats of the area. Most of these Qanats have been supported with hand made arcs called “Kaval”.

Table 1: The effects of historical and recent earthquakes on Iran’s Qanats (Ambraseys and Melville, 1982)

Damage to Qanat due to earthquake
Location
Date

Cause to make dry
Ghomes
856

Cause to make dry
Tabriz
1780

Collapse
Shiraz
1853

Collapse and long ground fissures (5-8m)
Ghochan
1893

Collapse in 5 km of Qanat length
Ghochan
1895

Collapse
Laleh Zar
1923

Collapse
Kopeh Dagh
1929

Collapse
Ah-Mobarak Abad
1930

Crack along an old Qanat
North Behabad
1933

Collapse and cause to make dry
Doost Abad
1947

Cause to make dry
Gavak
1948

Collapse
Dashte Bayaz
1968

Collapse
Ferdoos
1968

Collapse of 5 km Qanat tunnel and 180 access well
Ghir-Kazerin
1972

Collapse
Karizan-Khavaf
1979

Figure 14: The Location of some Qanats on aerial photo at West Baravat

Figure 15: The Location of some Qanats on aerial photo
(North East of Bam)

Figure 16: The Location of some Qanats on aerial photo
(South part of Bam)

Figure 17: A Qanat trend at the 8th km Bam to Kerman road

Figure 18: The effects of old Qanats near Khajeh Askar village

4-3-2- The effects of Bam Earthquake on Qanats

Qanats in Bam and its vicinity experienced severe damages during the earthquake. Site investigations carried out during the first days after the earthquake showed different levels of damages to Qanats.
In addition, at some locations the collapse of the Qanats had secondary effects on the buildings and lifeline of the area and increased the damages to them. These effects will be discussed at the following parts.

4-3-2-1- Subsidence above the tunnels and access wells of Qanats:

The most important effects of Bam Earthquake on Qanat systems are damages to the access wells and tunnels. Several sinkholes induced due to the earthquake above the tunnels and wells due to the collapse of underground openings.
Based on the previous experiences underground openings should be more resistant against seismic loads, but the damages to the Qanats of Bam area were severe. Most of the damages observed at the access wells but near the Bam Fault underground tunnels also have lost their stability and collapsed. It should be considered that most of the Qanats of the area have been supported with hand made arcs, but these supporting systems could not affect considerably on the stability of Qanats when dynamic loadings applied on them.
High concentration of sinkholes observed at the vicinity of the Bam Fault. Most of the occurred collapses were also observed in a narrow band close to the Bam Fault. Of course it should be considered that other damages to the structures and lifelines were also in a limited zone around the Bam fault.
Far from the Bam Fault the effects of earthquake on Qanats are less important and only some fissures and cracks can be observed along the tunnels of access wells.
Figure 19 to 22 presents some of the effects of Bam Earthquake on Qanats systems. As it is shown at some places the induced sinkholes have very large dimensions with several meters diameters.

Figure 19: Sink hole due to collapse of a Qanat tunnel at west of Baravat

Figure 20: Concentration of sink holes due to collapse of Qanat tunnels and access well (South of Bam)

Figure 21: Sink hole due to collapse of a Qanat tunnel at west of Baravat

4-3-2-2- The effects of sinkholes on structures and lifelines
The induced sinkholes by Bam Earthquake in urban area cause some damages to the structures and lifelines. These damages are more considerable at Baravat and south of Bam. Most of these damages are due to constructing on tunnels and access wells of old Qanats as the surface evidences of old Qanats can be disappeared during the time. In such cases the underground openings of Qanats may remain without considerable changes on a critical stability. Due to dynamic loading of earthquake this stability may change and collapse will occur. Such collapse will have effects on the above structures and may increase the damages to the structure.
Figure 22 and 23 show some of the damages to the roads due to collapse of Qanats. Some sinkholes induced under the main roads and bypasses of the area and increased the traffic and affect the performances of rescue teams, considering the importance of first hours after an earthquake for helping the injured and trapped persons. Figures 24 and 25 presents the damages to some houses and building due to sinkhole cause by collapsing the underground Qanats.

Figure 22: Sinkhole due to collapse of a Qanat under a bypass at Baravat

Figure 23: Sinkhole observed close to main road of Baravat; same sinkhole occurred under the main road that is now filled

Figure 24: Damage to a building due to collapse of an old Qanat (Baravat)

Figure 25: Damage to a sign due to the collapse of a Qanat (Baravat)

References:

Ambraseys, N. N. and Melville, C. P. (1982) A History of Persian Earthquakes, Cambridge University Press, Britain, translated by Radeh, A., Agah Publishers, Tehran, 1991.

Building and Housing Research Center (BHRC). 2003. Website: http://www.bhrc.gov.ir/bhrc/reports/bam/bam_pdf.pdf ;

Eshghi, S. and Zare, M. (2003) Bam (SE Iran) earthquake of 26 December 2003, Mw6.5: A Preliminary Reconnaissance Report , Website: http://www.iiees.ac.ir/English/bank/bam/ba...glish_recc.html

Geological Survey of Iran (GSI), Geological quadrangles of Bam, Sabzevaran, allah Abad, Jahan Abad , Scale:1:250000

International Institute of Engineering Earthquake and Seismology (IIEES). 2003. Preliminary Report of Bam Earthquake. Website: http://www.iiees.ac.ir/English/Bam_report_english.html

National Cartographic Center, 2003. Aerial photos of Bam earthquake affected area in the scale of 1:10000 (printed in the scale of 1:2500)

Seismology Department (IIEES). 2003. Seismological aspects of Bam earthquake of 26th December 2003, Mw 6.5.
Website: http://www.iiees.ac.ir/Bam_Report_2.pdf

United State Geological Survey (USGS). 2003. Websites: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/recenteqsww/Quakes/uscvad.htm ;
http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/eq_depot/2003/eq...eic_cvad_q.html
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Jamtjim
post 14.Jun.2012, 12:09 PM
Post #15
Joined: 11.Sep.2006

So does this report say anything about space lasers? Nope!

Once again you take a real life event and fabricate a nonsensical and provably incorrect fairy story around it!

There are no space laser weapons... you have just made it up for the attention and to try to escape the universal calls for you to stop welching on Jimmy's bet!

Space lasers, ricin poisoning, personal letters from Clinton, Trowbridge's credibility etc. all totally busted!!!
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