The proposal, which is part of the government 's spring budget, promises some 25,000 kronor ($4,630) per subject and aims to tackle the current shortage of teachers in these subjects.
"This is a unique course of action," Jan Björklund wrote in the Dagens Nyheter daily on Sunday, "but the challenge facing Sweden is also unique".
The premium is tax-free, has a ceiling of 75,000 (for those reading three subjects) and is proposed to cover those currently enrolled on teaching degree courses.
Björklund is also keen to expand the number of places for maths and science teachers and to create a fast track for researchers wishing to become university lecturers.
The Royal Academy's (Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien) school task force revealed earlier this year that only three people had applied to study biology to teach in upper secondary schools. The Academy described the situation as "alarming " and called for, among other things, a one-year paid teacher training for scientists holding PhDs.
"In order to make this transition more attractive the government also intends to allow these students to participate in the training grant," Bjorklund wrote.