Police say the victim, who is 32, was stabbed in the stomach at around 9pm on Tuesday evening and was driven to a local hospital by a friend.
He was so badly injured he was taken to the intensive care unit, regional media are reporting.
It is understood that both the teenager and the older man were living at the asylum accommodation where the attack took place.
Jimmy Modin, a spokesperson for police in the area, told the TT news agency on Wednesday morning that there was little further information available about the case.
"So far we have only carried out a short introductory interview with the 17-year-old," he said.
The attack comes just two weeks after 22-year-old Alexandra Mezher died following an attack at the home for teenage refugees in western Sweden where she worked.
However police have this week appeared to make efforts to calm far-right sentiment fuelled by her death by releasing statistics which suggest that less than one percent of crimes in Sweden are linked to refugees.
Sweden took in a record 163,000 asylum seekers in 2015 and expects to receive around 100,000 more this year, despite tightening its borders.