Private and public healthcare in Sweden: The differences explained

Sweden’s public healthcare system is ranked among the best in the world, so under what circumstances would one choose to ‘go private’ instead?

Private and public healthcare in Sweden: The differences explained
Sophiahemmet Hospital. Photo: Nino Monastra

Let’s begin with the basics.

In Sweden, there’s the country’s own equivalent of the UK’s NHS, with treatment that’s looked after by each county council and tax-funded. Consultations at your local healthcare clinic (vårdcentral) with a primary care doctor or a specialist in Sweden aren’t free of charge, but are heavily subsidised by each individual county.

Here’s where it gets a bit complicated. There’s no hard-and-fast rule around where you find public and private healthcare in Sweden — often you’ll see them working out of the same centre. Some clinics are run independently but have an agreement with the region and receive funding from the local county.

For example, at Sophiahemmet, an independently-run hospital in Stockholm, 40 different care providers operate across the institution. Most clinics within Sophiahemmet offer three different payment options: publicly-funded treatment where you pay the standard subsidised fee; treatment paid for by an insurance company (always check with your provider first, as they will make the assessment and booking); and private treatment where you are personally responsible for the amount in full.

Find out more about Sophiahemmet Hospital

So, going to see a practitioner at an independent hospital like Sophiahemmet can cost no more than going to your local vårdcentral. The doctors are paid by the county directly and patients just pay the normal fee.

If you’re in Sweden with a European healthcare card (an EHIC) or a Swedish personal identity number (personnummer) you’ll be entitled to public healthcare at the same cost and through the same procedure as a Swedish native.

Åsa Larsson, Sophiahemmet. Credit: David Bicho

But if you’re in Sweden on a shorter-term basis, without a personal identity number or an EHIC, going private gives you options. “You don’t have to be registered as living in Sweden to go to a private provider,” says Åsa Larsson, hospital manager at Sophiahemmet. “You either pay directly, or, if you have global health insurance, you’ll be covered.”

Private: good for speed, consistency of care and communication

While Sweden offers a public healthcare guarantee (vårdgarantin) that means that you’ll see a specialist within 90 days of being referred, for those looking to be seen without a delay, private care often wins out.

“In the private sector you’re likely to see a medical professional much more quickly than you would if you were to stay within the public sphere,” says Keith Hedge, an allergy specialist working both publicly and privately in one of Sophiahemmet’s specialist clinics.

And it’s not just about speed – the private sector tends to have a lower turnover of doctors, resulting in a greater consistency of care. Patients will have a dedicated professional who knows their case from beginning to end and understands their specific situation. This is always the case at Hälsocentralen in Sophiahemmet, a GP-style clinic where private and insurance patients get an appointment within a day or two as well as more time with the doctor.

Hedge notes that, “For people who don’t want to have to explain their background each time they go to the doctor, seeing the same specialist throughout their care is a big plus.”

Language barriers can also prove tricky when negotiating an unfamiliar medical system; an added attraction of the private system for many is the use of English as the common language. Larsson considers the prevalence of English spoken by staff and patients at Sophiahemmet to be “part of the reason lots of international people come to us.”

Keith Hedge, Sophiahemmet. Credit: David Bicho

Find out more about Sophiahemmet Hospital

In an emergency, opt for public healthcare

In the event of any serious and urgent medical issues, Sweden’s public system remains the first port of call.

“Giving Sophiahemmet as an example, if somebody has a disease like lung cancer, they’d be treated within the public system,” Hedge explains. “Sometimes we discover severe illnesses here and have to refer them back to public providers. Any emergency cases we can’t deal with, so in those instances you should always go to casualty (akutmottagning).”

For life-threatening emergencies, you should call freephone 112 for ambulances, police and the fire services. You can visit one of Sweden’s public hospitals that offer round-the-clock emergency care. There’s a fee for visiting these hospitals, ranging from 220 to 400 kronor.

The choice is yours

When it comes to deciding between private and public healthcare in Sweden, it’s about arming yourself with the knowledge and selecting the most appropriate path for your own needs.

For Larsson, it’s a matter of preference: “We’re in a position of privilege here in Sweden; we have a fantastic public health service, but we have the freedom of choice, too.”

This article was produced by The Local Creative Studio and sponsored by Sophiahemmet.

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EXPLAINED: What to do if you face a long wait for healthcare in Sweden

Sweden theoretically has a "healthcare guarantee" limiting your wait to see a GP to three days, and to see a consultant to three months. The reality is somewhat different. Here's what you can do if you face a long wait.

EXPLAINED: What to do if you face a long wait for healthcare in Sweden

What is Sweden’s ‘healthcare guarantee’? 

Sweden’s “National Guaranteed Access to Healthcare” or vårdgaranti, is a right to care, protected by law, that has applied in Sweden since 2005. You can see the latest version of the relevant laws here and here. Here is a summary of the guarantee on the website of the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions (SKR).

Under the system, all patients are guaranteed:

  • contact with a primary care centre by phone, in-person, or by video-link on the day they seek care 
  • an appointment with a doctor, nurse, physio, or psychotherapist within three days of seeking help 
  • an appointment with a specialist doctor or consultant within 90 days of seeking help 
  • treatment or operation within 90 days, if the specialist considers this necessary 

Does the guarantee mean I have a right to treatment? 

No. If the doctor at the primary care centre, after examining you and questioning you, decides that there is no reason to refer you to a specialist doctor, they do not need to do so. 

Similarly, if the specialist doctor, after examining you, decides that no treatment is necessary, then your case is considered completed.  

Can the waiting times to see a specialist or to get treatment be longer than 90 days? 

Absolutely. In fact, they very often are. 

According to the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions (SKR), in February, 32 percent of patients had been waiting 90 days or more to see a specialist, and 43 percent of those who had seen a specialist had been waiting for treatment for more than 90 days.  

The situation in primary care was a little better, with 80 percent of those seeking care in contact with their primary care centre on the same day, and 83 percent having their case assessed by a doctor or nurse within three days. 

In addition, if you agree with your specialist doctor that you are willing to wait longer for an operation, then that wait doesn’t get counted in the statistics. 

So what can I do if I’ve been waiting longer than the guaranteed time? 

In reality, it’s actually less a guarantee than a target.

In primary care, there is no way for individual patients to complain that they have had to wait too long to see a doctor or nurse, or to cut their waiting times by citing the guarantee. 

“There’s no system for enforcing that guarantee,” says Emma Spak, the primary care doctor who doubles as section chief for SKR’s healthcare division. 

It would make no sense to set up a complaints line for those who have had to wait too long for phone contact with their primary care centre, she points out, when they could instead talk to patients seeking a primary care appointment in the first place. 

“It’s more of an incentive system for the regions,” she explains.

Every primary care unit and every region reports their waiting times to the national waiting time register, and then as part of the access agreement between SKR and the government, the regional health authorities receive a bonus if they meet their waiting times goal, or if they improve their waiting times. “That’s one way of sort of enforcing this guarantee,” she says. 

When it comes to specialist treatment, though, patients do have the right to demand to be examined or treated by an alternative specialist or hospital if they’ve had to wait longer than 90 days.

If your primary care centre issues you a referral to a specialist, and the specialist cannot then offer you an appointment within 90 days, the specialist, at the same time as offering you a later appointment, will often put you in contact with a unit at the regional health authority who will offer to find you an alternative specialist, either within the region or elsewhere in Sweden. 

The regional health authority will then have to reimburse any extra travel or hotel costs incurred by the patient.  

Similarly, if after examining you, a specialist cannot offer you treatment within 90 days, they will normally put you in contact with the same unit. 

Some regions have a phone line for people who have been waiting too long, or else you can contact your specialist or primary care centre and ask for information on seeking an alternative specialist. 

What happens if I don’t want to travel to see a specialist or get treatment? 

If your regional health authority offers you an alternative specialist, either within your region or in another region, so that you can get treated within the 90 day period, and you are unwilling to travel, then you lose your rights under the guarantee. . 

“If you’re in Gothenburg, and they say you have to go to Stockholm to get your treatment, and you say, ‘no, I want to go here, then then you’ve sort of forfeited your right, and you have to take what’s on offer,” Spak says. 

What happens if I agree with my specialist to wait longer? 

If your specialist says that they can treat you in four months, but also offers you treatment elsewhere within the guaranteed 90 days, and you choose to be treated by your specialist, then that counts as a patient choice, which will not then be counted in the statistics. 

“The specialist might say, ‘I don’t think you will get any worse for waiting two months extra, and if you wait five months, then I can make sure that you get your surgery done here, and we can make sure that you get all the aftercare and everything here as well,” Spak says. 

But these patient decisions are also counted in the statistics, and if a region sees a sharp rise in patients choosing to wait, SKR will tend to investigate. 

“If some region all of a sudden has a lot of patients choosing a longer waiting time, then we will call them and ask what’s going on here, because patients don’t tend to want to wait extra,” Spak says.  

Can I get financial compensation if I’ve been waiting too long? 


What other ways are there of speeding up the wait for treatment? 

Don’t underplay your symptoms

When drawing up their timetable for treatment and assessment, specialists will tend to give different patients different wait times depending on the urgency of their case.

For this reason, it’s important not to underplay your symptoms when visiting a primary care doctor, as they will tend to include a few lines on the urgency of your case when they write their referral. 

Stress your flexibility 

If you are unemployed, a student, retired, or have a very flexible job, it is worth telling your primary care doctor about this, because they may write in your referral that you are able to make appointments at very short notice. The specialist may then put you on their list of people to ring if one of their patients cancels. 

“Sometimes I write in my referrals that this patient could easily come at short notice, so please put the patient on the list for people you can call if there’s a time slot available,” Spak says. 

If you haven’t told your primary care doctor this, it’s not too late. You can ring the specialist yourself and tell their receptionist that you are very flexible, and ask to be put on the back-up list. This is particularly useful if you’re waiting for a scan, but you could also potentially work even if you’re waiting for heart surgery or a hip replacement. 

“If they’ve accepted you as a patient, and they’ve made sure that you fulfil the criteria for having that scan or whatever, then you can call them and say, ‘I have a really flexible job, I can come anytime if you have a gap,'” Spak says.

“A lot of people do that, because they can have [back-up] waiting lists. If you tell them ‘I work around the corner and I only need 15 minutes to be there’, then they might call you if someone doesn’t show up.” 

Ring up your specialist 

The queue system tends to be quite ad hoc, with no strict rules over who should be treated first, so it is often possible to reduce your wait by ringing up your specialist a few times a month, just to bring your case to their attention. Sometimes the receptionist will remember a slot that has just come free and bring forward your treatment while you are still on the telephone.