The Terminator star was a "cool guest", according to the chef at SK Mat & Människor, Stefan Karlsson, who has been named one of Sweden's ten best cooks.
Karlsson posted a photo of the pair on social media site Instagram, which received hundreds of likes in just a few hours. When approached by The Local for comment, the chef said the restaurant had a policy of not commenting on its guests.
"Cool drop-in guest on Tuesday in Gothenburg."
Schwarzenegger has previously described Sweden as a "beautiful place" and met Sweden's former prime minister Fredrik Reinfeldt while serving as governor.
SK Mat & Människor has been awarded a Michelin star, and serves dinners of up to eight courses in its "intimate" 42-person dining room.
Its specialities include local pheasant and chicken liver mousse, but it's likely Schwarzenegger opted for a vegetarian meal.
Despite delivering the line "you hit like a vegetarian" in 2013 comedy Escape Plan, the actor has embraced the meat-free diet.
He has said he is "slowly" converting to a vegan lifestyle, due both to health reasons and fears over the meat industry's impact on climate change.