Ukraine war sparks debate on Swedish-speaking Åland Islands

Sprayed between Sweden and Finland, the autonomous Åland Islands are a picturesque archipelago once part of Russia and demilitarised since 1856. But the region's unique status is the object of intense debate following Finland and Sweden's Nato applications.

Ukraine war sparks debate on Swedish-speaking Åland Islands
An elevated view shows Åland, Finland, on June 1, 2022. Photo: Alessandro Rampazzo/AFP

Under international treaties signed after the Crimean War, no troops or fortifications can be placed on the strategic Baltic Sea islands.

“It is the Achilles’ heel of Finland’s defence,” Alpo Rusi, a professor and former presidential advisor, told AFP.

Home to about 30,000 mostly Swedish-speaking Finns, the area is characterised by rocky islands, lush green forests, old stone churches and wooden architecture — all under the watchful eye of a Russian consulate.

“We have always thought, ‘Who would want to attack us when we have nothing worth taking?’,” 81-year-old Ulf Grüssner told AFP.

“But that has changed with Putin’s war on Ukraine”, said the pensioner, one of many here who want Åland to remain demilitarised.

In June, a poll showed 58 percent of Finns would approve of a military presence on Åland, which celebrated the 100th anniversary of its autonomy on Thursday.

“There is concern over whether Finland could react fast enough militarily in the event of a sudden intrusion on Åland,” Rusi said.

Armies wrestled for control of the archipelago in both World Wars. “Why should we trust the idea … that troops would not rush to control Åland as fast as possible,” said Charly Salonius-Pasternak, a researcher at the Finnish Institute of International Affairs.

Veronica Thörnroos, Premier of the Government of Åland. Photo: Alessandro Rampazzo/AFP

Åland rejects troops

Ålanders, on the other hand, are keen to protect their special status and have so far firmly rejected the idea of ending the demilitarisation.

“Why should we change it? I think it’s a stabilising factor in the Baltic Sea area that we are demilitarised,” Veronica Thörnroos, 59, premier of the Åland government, told AFP.

Besides, if the archipelago were attacked, Finland would defend it “very quickly”, she said.

The Finnish government has said it has no intention of touching Åland’s special status.

Sia Spiliopoulou Åkermark, director of the Åland Peace Institute, meanwhile noted that the “Åland regime” of autonomy, cultural guarantees and demilitarisation is a “complex knot” that should be considered as a whole.

Sia Spiliopoulou Åkermark, Director of the Åland Peace Institute. Photo: Alessandro Rampazzo/AFP

Russian presence

Like the rest of Finland, Åland was part of the Russian empire from 1809 to 1917.

At the time, the archipelago was viewed as an important outpost in the defence of Saint Petersburg and control of the Baltic Sea.

Finland gained independence from Russia in 1917, and was granted sovereignty over Åland in 1921 despite protests from the islands’ Swedish-speaking majority.

The Nordic country went on to fight two bloody wars against the Soviet Union during World War II.

A man holds a sign reading “Putin Go Home” during a protest in front of the Russian embassy in Mariehamn, Åland. Photo: Alessandro Rampazzo/AFP

As part of their peace deal, the demilitarisation of Åland was to be monitored by a Soviet consulate in the archipelago’s main town of Mariehamn.

The consulate still exists to this day, although it is now run by Russia. A group of locals gather every day outside the high metal fence protecting the consulate, to protest Russia’s war in Ukraine.

“They have no business being here. Russia is always a threat”, one of the protestors, Mosse Wallén, 71, told AFP.

Putin’s property

Russia also owns a seaside property north of Mariehamn in Saltvik, which was acquired in the 1947 peace deal.

“They gave my mother three days to move out”, said Ulf Grüssner, whose idyllic childhood home is now fenced in by the consulate.

Grüssner’s father was a German geologist, and the peace deal stipulated that all German possessions in Finland were to be ceded to the Soviets.

Pensioner Ulf Grüssner poses for a picture in front of his family house in Saltvik, Åland on June 2022. The house is now Russian property. Photo: Alessandro Rampazzo/AFP

In 2009, ownership of a piece of the property was transferred to the Russian presidency.

Concern has mounted in Finland in recent years over Russian property deals across the country.

Grüssner feared that Russia might intend to use his family’s property and the demilitarisation as a “pretext” to increase its presence in the area.

“It is far-fetched, but on the other hand it’s not impossible,” he said.

By AFP’s Elias Huuhtanen

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US Senate ratifies Sweden’s entry to Nato

The US Senate ratified the entry of Sweden and Finland into Nato Wednesday, strongly backing the expansion of the transatlantic alliance in the face of Russia's invasion of Ukraine.

US Senate ratifies Sweden's entry to Nato

The Senate voted 95 to 1 in favour of the two Nordic countries’ accession, making the United States the 23rd of the 30 Nato countries to formally endorse it so far, after Italy approved it earlier Wednesday and France on Tuesday. President Joe Biden hailed the Senate’s quick ratification process — the fastest since 1981.

“This historic vote sends an important signal of the sustained, bipartisan US commitment to Nato, and to ensuring our Alliance is prepared to meet the
challenges of today and tomorrow,” Biden said in a statement.

The sole opponent was Republican Josh Hawley, who agreed that the United States should focus on protecting its homeland, but that Washington should concentrate on the challenge from China rather than Europe.

One senator, Republican Rand Paul, voted “present” rather than endorsing or opposing the motion. Senate leader Chuck Schumer said it was a signal of Western unity after Moscow launched a war on Ukraine on February 24.

“This is important substantively and as a signal to Russia: they cannot intimidate America or Europe,” Schumer said. “Putin has tried to use his war in Ukraine to divide the West. Instead, today’s vote shows our alliance is stronger than ever.” 

All 30 members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation must agree if Finland and Sweden, officially non-aligned but longtime adjunct partners of
the alliance, are admitted. According to a Nato list, seven member countries have yet to formally agree to the new double-entry: the Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain and Turkey.

Only Turkey has raised a challenge, demanding certain concessions from Finland and Sweden to back their memberships.

Ankara has demanded the extradition of dozens of government opponents it labels “terrorists” from both countries in exchange for its support.

Turkey said on July 21 that a special committee would meet Finnish and Swedish officials in August to assess if the two nations are complying with
its conditions.